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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 127021, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/127021
Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

1Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3Department of NEUROFARBA, Section of Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Sciences and Multidisciplinary Centre of Research on Food Sciences, Florence University, Via Ugo Schiff 6, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Florence, Italy
4CRA Agricultural Research Council, Research Unit for Enology in Central Italy, Via Cantina 12, Sperimentale 1, Velletri, 00049 Rome, Italy
5Department of Experimental Medicine, Microbiology Section, University of Perugia, Via Gambuli, Polo Unico Sant’Andrea delle Fratte, 06132 Perugia, Italy
6CRA Agricultural Research Council, Research Unit for Table Grapes and Wine Growing in Mediterranean Environment, Via Casamassima 148, Turi, 70010 Bari, Italy

Received 5 December 2013; Accepted 27 March 2014; Published 23 April 2014

Academic Editor: Aramati B. Reddy

Copyright © 2014 Giovanna Simonetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs), obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols 250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.