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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 145423, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/145423
Research Article

Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

1Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials, Radboud University Medical Center, 309 Dentistry, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2Department of Periodontology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China

Received 11 February 2014; Revised 8 April 2014; Accepted 12 April 2014; Published 28 April 2014

Academic Editor: Jun Liao

Copyright © 2014 Xiang-Zhen Yan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs). Materials and Methods. STRO-1 positive hPDLCs were sorted and the sorted cells were expanded and compared with their unsorted parental cells. Thereafter, hPDLCs were treated with or without Wnt3a and the cell proliferation, self-renewal, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Results. No differences were measured between the expanded STRO-1-sorted cells and unsorted parental cells in terms of proliferation, CFU, and mineralization capacity. Wnt3a enhanced the proliferation and self-renewal ability of hPDLCs significantly as displayed by higher DNA content values, a shorter cell population doubling time, and higher expression of the self-renewal gene Oct4. Moreover, Wnt3a promoted the expansion of hPDLCs for 5 passages without affecting cell proliferation, CFU, and osteogenic capacity. Conclusions. Expanded STRO-1-sorted hPDLCs showed no superiority compared to their unsorted parental cells. On the other hand, Wnt3a promotes the efficient hPDLC expansion and retains the self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation capacity.