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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 146170, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/146170
Review Article

MicroRNA as New Tools for Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment and Therapeutic Intervention: Results from Clinical Data Set and Patients’ Samples

1Departement of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Fermo Ognibene, 00144 Rome, Italy

Received 6 June 2014; Revised 18 August 2014; Accepted 21 August 2014; Published 16 September 2014

Academic Editor: Paolo Gandellini

Copyright © 2014 Alessio Cannistraci et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in men. Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer early detection and clinical management, validation of new biomarkers able to predict the natural history of tumor progression is still necessary in order to reduce overtreatment and to guide therapeutic decisions. MicroRNAs are endogenous noncoding RNAs which offer a fast fine-tuning and energy-saving mechanism for posttranscriptional control of protein expression. Growing evidence indicate that these RNAs are able to regulate basic cell functions and their aberrant expression has been significantly correlated with cancer development. Therefore, detection of microRNAs in tumor tissues and body fluids represents a new tool for early diagnosis and patient prognosis prediction. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about microRNA deregulation in prostate cancer mainly focusing on the different clinical aspects of the disease. We also highlight the potential roles of microRNAs in PCa management, while also discussing several current challenges and needed future research.