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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 153808, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/153808
Review Article

Challenges for Nerve Repair Using Chitosan-Siloxane Hybrid Porous Scaffolds

1Frontier Research Academy for Young Researchers, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0196, Japan
2Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
3CEMUC, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
4Neuroscience Institute of the Cavalieri Ottolenghi Foundation, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
5Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
6Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto (UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira No. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
7Centro de Estudos de Ciência Animal (CECA), Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologias Agrárias e Agro-Alimentares (ICETA), Rua D. Manuel II, Apartado 55142, 4051-401 Porto, Portugal

Received 7 February 2014; Revised 29 May 2014; Accepted 31 May 2014; Published 17 June 2014

Academic Editor: Fausto Viterbo

Copyright © 2014 Yuki Shirosaki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains one of the greatest challenges of neurosurgery, as functional recover is rarely satisfactory in these patients. Recently, biodegradable nerve guides have shown great potential for enhancing nerve regeneration. A major advantage of these nerve guides is that no foreign material remains after the device has fulfilled its task, which spares a second surgical intervention. Recently, we studied peripheral nerve regeneration using chitosan-γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (chitosan-GPTMS) porous hybrid membranes. In our studies, these porous membranes significantly improved nerve fiber regeneration and functional recovery in rat models of axonotmetic and neurotmetic sciatic nerve injuries. In particular, the number of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers and myelin thickness were significantly higher in rat treated with chitosan porous hybrid membranes, whether or not they were used in combination with mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord. In this review, we describe our findings on the use of chitosan-GPTMS hybrids for nerve regeneration.