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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 175062, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/175062
Review Article

Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Relevance to Alzheimer’s Disease

Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Ke Karlovu 11, 120 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 19 April 2014; Accepted 20 April 2014; Published 12 May 2014

Academic Editor: Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang

Copyright © 2014 Jana Hroudová et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunctions are supposed to be responsible for many neurodegenerative diseases dominating in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD). A growing body of evidence suggests that defects in mitochondrial metabolism and particularly of electron transport chain may play a role in pathogenesis of AD. Structurally and functionally damaged mitochondria do not produce sufficient ATP and are more prominent in producing proapoptotic factors and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this can be an early stage of several mitochondrial disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunctions may be caused by both mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA that code mitochondrial components and by environmental causes. In the following review, common aspects of mitochondrial impairment concerned about neurodegenerative diseases are summarized including ROS production, impaired mitochondrial dynamics, and apoptosis. Also, damaged function of electron transport chain complexes and interactions between pathological proteins and mitochondria are described for AD particularly and marginally for PD and HD.