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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 178123, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/178123
Review Article

Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, Ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland

Received 28 February 2014; Accepted 14 April 2014; Published 11 May 2014

Academic Editor: Giuseppina Nocca

Copyright © 2014 Joanna Kolmas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.