Table 1: Summary of the pesticides tested. We have tested 9 APs of major herbicides, insecticides, or fungicides of different classes, used worldwide for agricultural or domestic purposes. Concentrations of the APs are indicated in parenthesis. Adjuvants are reported where they are mentioned on the material safety data sheet (MSDS).

Pesticide classesActive principles(g/L)FormulationsDeclared adjuvants

HerbicidesPhosphonoglycineGlyphosate450Roundup GT+ Ethoxylated etheralkylamine
PhenylureaIsoproturon500Matin EL Unknown
Synthetic auxinFluroxypyr (ester 1-methylheptyl)200Starane 200Solvent naphtha; alkyl-aryl sulfonates

InsecticidesCarbamatePirimicarb500Pirimor G Docusate sodium; benzenesulfonic acid
NeonicotinoidImidacloprid200Confidor 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
NeonicotinoidAcetamiprid5Polysect Ultra 1,2-Benzisothiazoline-3-one; ethanol

FungicidesTriazoleTebuconazole250MaroneeN,N-Dimethyldecanamide
TriazoleEpoxiconazole125Opus Solvent naphtha; fatty alcohol ethoxylated
ImidazoleProchloraz450Eyetak Solvent naphtha; xylene; isobutanol