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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 183483, 5 pages
Research Article

Forces Applied during Transvenous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Lead Removal

1Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen, Fakultät für Medizin, Technische Universität München, Lazarettstraße 36, 80636 München, Germany
2Klinikum rechts der Isar, 1. Medizinische Klinik, Fakultät für Medizin, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 2, 81675 München, Germany

Received 11 December 2013; Revised 9 April 2014; Accepted 29 April 2014; Published 21 May 2014

Academic Editor: Henny C. van der Mei

Copyright © 2014 Carsten Lennerz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Methods. 17 physicians, experienced in transvenous lead removal, performed a lead extraction manoeuvre of an ICD lead on a torso phantom. They were advised to stop traction only when further traction would be considered as harmful to the patient or when—based on their experience—a change in the extraction strategy was indicated. Traction forces were recorded with a digital precision gauge. Results. Median traction forces on the endocardium were 10.9 N (range from 3.0 N to 24.7 N and interquartile range from 7.9 to 15.3). Forces applied to the proximal end were estimated to be 10% higher than those measured at the tip of the lead due to a friction loss. Conclusion. A traction force of around 11 N is typically exerted during standard transvenous extraction of ICD leads. A traction threshold for a safe procedure derived from a pool of experienced extractionists may be helpful for the development of required adequate simulator trainings.