Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 191967, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/191967
Review Article

Medical Treatments for Endometriosis-Associated Pelvic Pain

1Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, 34149 Trieste, Italy
2Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Via dell’Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy

Received 17 November 2013; Accepted 26 May 2014; Published 7 August 2014

Academic Editor: Mohamed Mabrouk

Copyright © 2014 Gabriella Zito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. C. Giudice and L. C. Kao, “Endometriosis,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9447, pp. 1789–1799, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Guo and Y. Wang, “The prevalence of endometriosis in women with chronic pelvic pain,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 121–130, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Simoens, G. Dunselman, C. Dirksen et al., “The burden of endometriosis: costs and quality of life of women with endometriosis and treated in referral centres,” Human Reproduction, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1292–1299, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. U. Menakaya, F. Infante, and G. Condous, “Consensus on current management of endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 28, pp. 3162–3163, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. G. A. Dunselman, N. Vermeulen, C. Becker et al., “ESHRE guideline: management of women with endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 29, pp. 400–412, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. W. Kistner, “Treatment of endometriosis by inducing pseudo-pregnancy with ovarian hormones,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 10, pp. 539–554, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  7. H. Sullivan, H. Furniss, J. Spona, and M. Elstein, “Effect of 21-day and 24-day oral contraceptive regimens containing gestodene (60 μg) and ethinyl estradiol (15 μg) on ovarian activity,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 115–120, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Harada, M. Momoeda, Y. Taketani, H. Hoshiai, and N. Terakawa, “Low-dose oral contraceptive pill for dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1583–1588, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Vercellini, B. Eskenazi, D. Consonni et al., “Oral contraceptives and risk of endometriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 17, no. 2, Article ID dmq042, pp. 159–170, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Vercellini, O. de Giorgi, P. Mosconi, G. Stellato, S. Vicentini, and P. G. Crosignani, “Cyproterone acetate versus a continuous monophasic oral contraceptive in the treatment of recurrent pelvic pain after conservative surgery for symptomatic endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Seracchioli, M. Mabrouk, L. Manuzzi et al., “Post-operative use of oral contraceptive pills for prevention of anatomical relapse or symptom-recurrence after conservative surgery for endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2729–2735, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Seibert, E. Barbouche, J. Fagan, E. Myint, T. Wetterneck, and M. Wittemyer, “Prescribing oral contraceptives for women older than 35 years of age,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 54–64, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. R. Soares, A. Martínez-Varea, J. J. Hidalgo-Mora, and A. Pellicer, “Pharmacologic therapies in endometriosis: a systematic review,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 529–555, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. S. McLaren, E. Morris, and J. Rymer, “Gonadotrophin receptor hormone analogues in combination with add-back therapy: an update,” Menopause International, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 68–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Kauppila, P. Vierikko, and H. Isotalo, “Cytosol estrogen and progestin receptor concentrations and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the endometrium and endometriotic tissue. Effects of hormonal treatment,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 63, no. 123, pp. 45–49, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Vierikko, A. Kauppila, L. Ronnberg, and R. Vihko, “Steroidal regulation of endometriosis tissue: lack of induction of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity by progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or danazol,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 218–224, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Brown, S. Kives, and M. Akhtar, “Progestagens and anti-progestagens for pain associated with endometriosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 3, p. CD002122, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Fedele, S. Bianchi, G. Zanconato, A. Portuese, and R. Raffaelli, “Use of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 485–488, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Bayoglu Tekin, B. Dilbaz, S. K. Altinbas, and S. Dilbaz, “Postoperative medical treatment of chronic pelvic pain related to severe endometriosis: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 492–496, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. M. Abou-Setta, B. Houston, H. G. Al-Inany, and C. Farquhar, “Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for symptomatic endometriosis following surgery,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, Article ID CD005072, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. A. Petta, R. A. Ferriani, M. S. Abrao et al., “Randomized clinical trial of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and a depot GnRH analogue for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain in women with endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1993–1998, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Y. Wong, L. C. Tang, and R. K. Chin, “Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) and Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depoprovera) as long-term maintenance therapy for patients with moderate and severe endometriosis: a randomised controlled trial,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 20, pp. 273–279, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Walch, G. Unfried, J. Huber et al., “Implanon versus medroxyprogesterone acetate: effects on pain scores in patients with symptomatic endometriosis—a pilot study,” Contraception, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Z. Stanczyk and S. Roy, “Metabolism of levonorgestrel, norethindrone, and structurally related contraceptive steroids,” Contraception, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 67–96, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. Muneyyirci-Delale and M. Karacan, “Effect of norethindrone acetate in the treatment of symptomatic endometriosis,” International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 24–27, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Vercellini, L. Fedele, G. Pietropaolo, G. Frontino, E. Somigliana, and P. G. Crosignani, “Progestogens for endometriosis: forward to the past,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 387–396, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Vercellini, G. Pietropaolo, O. De Giorgi, R. Pasin, A. Chiodini, and P. G. Crosignani, “Treatment of symptomatic rectovaginal endometriosis with an estrogen-progestogen combination versus low-dose norethindrone acetate,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1375–1387, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Ferrero, G. Camerini, R. Seracchioli, N. Ragni, P. L. Venturini, and V. Remorgida, “Letrozole combined with norethisterone acetate compared with norethisterone acetate alone in the treatment of pain symptoms caused by endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 3033–3041, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Ferrero, G. Camerini, N. Ragni, P. L. Venturini, E. Biscaldi, and V. Remorgida, “Norethisterone acetate in the treatment of colorectal endometriosis: a pilot study,” Human Reproduction, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 94–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Harada and F. Taniguchi, “Dienogest: a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of endometriosis,” Women's Health, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. E. Schindler, “Dienogest in long-term treatment of endometriosis,” International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 175–184, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. L. McCormack, “Dienogest: a review of its use in the treatment of endometriosis,” Drugs, vol. 70, no. 16, pp. 2073–2088, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Köhler, T. A. Faustmann, C. Gerlinger, C. Seitz, and A. O. Mueck, “A dose-ranging study to determine the efficacy and safety of 1, 2, and 4 mg of dienogest daily for endometriosis,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 21–25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Strowitzki, T. Faustmann, C. Gerlinger, and C. Seitz, “Dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 193–198, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Petraglia, D. Hornung, C. Seitz et al., “Reduced pelvic pain in women with endometriosis: efficacy of long-term dienogest treatment,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 285, no. 1, pp. 167–173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Strowitzki, J. Marr, C. Gerlinger, T. Faustmann, and C. Seitz, “Dienogest is as effective as leuprolide acetate in treating the painful symptoms of endometriosis: a 24-week, randomized, multicentre, open-label trial,” Human Reproduction, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 633–641, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Cosson, D. Querleu, J. Donnez et al., “Dienogest is as effective as triptorelin in the treatment of endometriosis after laparoscopic surgery: results of a prospective, multicenter, randomized study,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 684–692, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Harada, M. Momoeda, Y. Taketani et al., “Dienogest is as effective as intranasal buserelin acetate for the relief of pain symptoms associated with endometriosis-a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled trial,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 675–681, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. B. Greenblatt, W. P. Dmowski, V. B. Mahesh, and H. F. Scholer, “Clinical studies with an antigonadotropin-Danazol.,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 102–112, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Crosignani, D. Olive, A. Bergqvist, and A. Luciano, “Advances in the management of endometriosis: an update for clinicians,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 179–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Vercellini, E. Somigliana, P. Viganò, A. Abbiati, G. Barbara, and P. G. Crosignani, “Endometriosis: current therapies and new pharmacological developments,” Drugs, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 649–675, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Igarashi, M. Iizuka, Y. Abe, and Y. Ibuki, “Novel vaginal danazol ring therapy for pelvic endometriosis, in particular deeply infiltrating endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1952–1956, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. M. Cottreau, R. B. Ness, F. Modugno, G. O. Allen, and M. T. Goodman, “Endometriosis and its treatment with danazol or lupron in relation to ovarian cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 14, pp. 5142–5144, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Tamaya, J. Fujimoto, Y. Watanabe, K. Arahori, and H. Okada, “Gestrinone (R2323) binding to steroid receptors in human uterine endometrial cytosol,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 439–441, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Fedele, S. Bianchi, T. Viezzoli, L. Arcaini, and G. B. Candiani, “Gestrinone versus danazol in the treatment of endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 781–785, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Prentice, “Regular review: endometriosis,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 323, no. 7304, pp. 93–95, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. R. W. Shaw, “GnRH analogues in the treatment of endometriosis-rationale and efficacy,” in Modern Approaches to Endometriosis, E. J. Thomas and J. A. Rock, Eds., pp. 257–274, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, UK, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  48. M. D. Hornstein, A. A. Yuzpe, K. A. Burry, L. R. Heinrichs, V. L. Buttram Jr., and E. S. Orwoll, “Prospective randomized double-blind trial of 3 versus 6 months of nafarelin therapy for endometriosis associated pelvic pain,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 955–962, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. S. Surrey and M. D. Hornstein, “Prolonged GnRH agonist and add-back therapy for symptomatic endometriosis: long-term follow-up,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 709–719, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. S. Surrey, “Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and add-back therapy: what do the data show?” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 283–288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. Küpker, R. E. Felberbaum, M. Krapp, T. Schill, E. Malik, and K. Diedrich, “Use of GnRH antagonists in the treatment of endometriosis,” Reproductive Biomedicine Online, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Finas, D. Hornung, K. Diedrich, and A. Schultze-Mosgau, “Cetrorelix in the treatment of female infertility and endometriosis,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 7, no. 15, pp. 2155–2168, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. P. Diamond, B. Carr, W. P. Dmowski et al., “Elagolix treatment for endometriosis-associated pain: results from a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 363–371, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. C. Allen, S. Hopewell, A. Prentice, and D. Gregory, “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain in women with endometriosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2, Article ID CD004753, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. C. Hayes and J. A. Rock, “COX-2 inhibitors and their role in gynecology,” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 768–780, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. Dogan, U. Saygili, C. Posaci et al., “Regression of endometrial explants in rats treated with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 82, supplement 3, pp. 1115–1120, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. Cobellis, S. Razzi, S. De Simone et al., “The treatment with a COX-2 specific inhibitor is effective in the management of pain related to endometriosis,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 100–102, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. F. Meresman, M. Bilotas, V. Abello, R. Buquet, M. Tesone, and C. Sueldo, “Effects of aromatase inhibitors on proliferation and apoptosis in eutopic endometrial cell cultures from patients with endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 459–463, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Velasco, J. Rueda, and P. Acién, “Aromatase expression in endometriotic tissues and cell cultures of patients with endometriosis,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 377–381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. E. Bulun, S. Yang, Z. Fang, B. Gurates, M. Tamura, and S. Sebastian, “Estrogen production and metabolism in endometriosis,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 955, pp. 75–85, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. E. Pavone and S. E. Bulun, “Aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1370–1379, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. L. Amsterdam, W. Gentry, S. Jobanputra, M. Wolf, S. D. Rubin, and S. E. Bulun, “Anastrazole and oral contraceptives: a novel treatment for endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 300–304, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. K. Ailawadi, S. Jobanputra, M. Kataria, B. Gurates, and S. E. Bulun, “Treatment of endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain with letrozole and norethindrone acetate: a pilot study,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 290–296, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. V. Remorgida, L. H. Abbamonte, N. Ragni, E. Fulcheri, and S. Ferrero, “Letrozole and desogestrel-only contraceptive pill for the treatment of stage IV endometriosis,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 222–225, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. Remorgida, H. L. Abbamonte, N. Ragni, E. Fulcheri, and S. Ferrero, “Letrozole and norethisterone acetate in rectovaginal endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 724–726, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Abushahin, K. N. Goldman, E. Barbieri, M. Milad, A. Rademaker, and S. E. Bulun, “Aromatase inhibition for refractory endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 939–942, 2011, Erratum in: Fertility and Sterility, vol. 97, p. 1017, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Buelke-Sam, H. U. Bryant, and P. C. Francis, “The selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene: an overview of nonclinical pharmacology and reproductive and developmental testing,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 217–221, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. D. K. Swisher, R. M. Tague, and D. E. Seyler, “Effect of the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene on explanted uterine growth in rats,” Drug Development Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Fanning, T. J. Kuehl, R. Lee et al., “Video mapping to assess efficacy of an antiestrogen (raloxifene) on spontaneous endometriosis in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta,” in Bunkley Day Proceedings, T. J. Kuehl, Ed., pp. 51–61, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Temple, Tex, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  70. P. Stratton, N. Sinaii, J. Segars et al., “Return of chronic pelvic pain from endometriosis after raloxifene treatment: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. I. Lebovic, M. D. Mueller, and R. N. Taylor, “Immunobiology of endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. N. Ho, M. Y. Wu, and Y. S. Yang, “Peritoneal cell immunity and endometriosis,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 38, pp. 400–412, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  73. W. Küpker, A. Schultze-Mosgau, and K. Diedrich, “Paracrine changes in the peritoneal environment of women with endometriosis,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 719–723, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. E. Somigliana, P. Viganò, G. Rossi, S. Carinelli, M. Vignali, and P. Panina-Bordignon, “Endometrial ability to implant in ectopic sites can be prevented by interleukin-12 in a murine model of endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2944–2950, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Acién, F. J. Quereda, M. Gómez-Torres, R. Bermejo, and M. Gutierrez, “GnRH analogues, transvaginal ultrasound-guided drainage and intracystic injection of recombinant interleukin-2 in the treatment of endometriosis,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 96–104, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. Acién, G. Pérez-Albert, F. J. Quereda, M. Sánchez-Ferrer, A. García-Almela, and I. Velasco, “Treatment of endometriosis with transvaginal ultrasound-guided drainage under GnRH analogues and recombinant interleukin-2 left in the cysts,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 224–231, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. M. R. Ingelmo, F. Quereda, and P. Acién, “Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous treatment of experimental endometriosis with recombinant human interferon-α-2b in a murine model,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 907–911, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. A. Keenan, P. J. Massey, T. T. Chen, M. R. Caudle, and A. Bukovsky, “Regression of endometrial explants in a rat model of endometriosis treated with the immune modulators loxoribine and levamisole,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 135–141, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. P. Acién, F. Quereda, A. Campos, M. J. Gomez-Torres, I. Velasco, and M. Gutierrez, “Use of intraperitoneal interferon α-2b therapy after conservative surgery for endometriosis and postoperative medical treatment with depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog: a randomized clinical trial,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 705–711, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. L. D'Hellencourt, L. Diaw, P. Cornillet, and M. Guenounou, “Differential regulation of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFβ, and IL-10 by pentoxifylline,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 739–748, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. P. Braun, J. Ding, and W. P. Dmowski, “Peritoneal fluid-mediated enhancement of eutopic and ectopic endometrial cell proliferation is dependent on tumor necrosis factor-α in women with endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 727–732, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Sillem, S. Prifti, A. Koch, M. Neher, J. Jauckus, and B. Runnebaum, “Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in uterine endometrial cells of patients with and without endometriosis,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 167–174, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. F. Vlahos, O. Gregoriou, A. Deliveliotou et al., “Effect of pentoxifylline on vascular endothelial growth factor C and flk-1 expression on endometrial implants in the rat endometriosis model,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1316–1323, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Steinleitner, H. Lambert, M. Suarez, N. Serpa, and S. Roy, “Immunomodulation in the treatment of endometriosis-associated subfertility: use of pentoxifylline to reverse the inhibition of fertilization by surgically induced endometriosis in a rodent model,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 975–979, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. Kamencic and J. A. Thiel, “Pentoxifylline after conservative surgery for endometriosis: a randomized, controlled trial,” Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Creus, F. Fábregues, F. Carmona, M. del Pino, D. Manau, and J. Balasch, “Combined laparoscopic surgery and pentoxifylline therapy for treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility: a preliminary trial,” Human Reproduction, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1910–1916, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. Balasch, M. Creus, F. Fàbregues et al., “Pentoxifylline versus placebo in the treatment of infertility associated with minimal or mild endometriosis: a pilot randomized clinical trial,” Human Reproduction, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 2046–2050, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Alborzi, S. Ghotbi, M. E. Parsanezhad, S. Dehbashi, and M. Alborzi, “Pentoxifylline therapy after laparoscopic surgery for different stages of endometriosis: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. Lu, H. Song, Y. Li, J. Clarke, and G. Shi, “Pentoxifylline for endometriosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, Article ID CD007677, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. D'Antonio, F. Martelli, S. Peano, R. Papoian, and F. Borrelli, “Ability of recombinant human TNF binding protein-1 (r-hTBP-1) to inhibit the development of experimentally-induced endometriosis in rats,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 81–98, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. R. Grümmer, “Animal models in endometriosis research,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 641–649, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. B. F. Barrier, G. W. Bates, M. M. Leland, D. A. Leach, R. D. Robinson, and A. M. Propst, “Efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in the treatment of spontaneous endometriosis in baboons,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 81, supplement 1, pp. 775–779, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. T. M. D'Hooghe, N. P. Nugent, S. Cuneo et al., “Recombinant human TNFRSF1A (r-hTBP1) inhibits the development of endometriosis in baboons: a prospective, randomized, placebo- and drug-controlled study,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 131–136, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. H. Falconer, J. M. Mwenda, D. C. Chai et al., “Treatment with anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (c5N) reduces the extent of induced endometriosis in the baboon,” Human Reproduction, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1856–1862, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. R. Koninckx, M. Craessaerts, D. Timmerman, F. Cornillie, and S. Kennedy, “Anti-TNF-α treatment for deep endometriosis-associated pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Human Reproduction, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2017–2023, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. Lu, H. Song, and G. Shi, “Anti-TNF-α treatment for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis.,” The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, vol. 3, Article ID CD008088, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. T. Bongartz, A. J. Sutton, M. J. Sweeting, I. Buchan, E. L. Matteson, and V. Montori, “Anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infections and malignancies: systematic review and meta-analysis of rare harmful effects in randomized controlled trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 19, pp. 2275–2285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. T. Bongartz, A. J. Sutton, M. J. Sweeting, I. Buchan, E. L. Matteson, and V. Montori, “Erratum in “Anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infections and malignancies: systematic review and meta-analysis of rare harmful effects in randomized controlled trials”,” JAMA, vol. 295, no. 21, p. 2482, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  99. P. Froment, F. Gizard, D. Defever, B. Staels, J. Dupont, and P. Monget, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in reproductive tissues: from gametogenesis to parturition,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 199–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. G. L. Rubin, Y. Zhao, A. M. Kalus, and E. R. Simpson, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligands inhibit estrogen biosynthesis in human breast adipose tissue: possible implications for breast cancer therapy,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1604–1608, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. D. I. Lebovic, S. K. Kavoussi, J. Lee, S. K. Banu, and J. A. Arosh, “PPARγ activation inhibits growth and survival of human endometriotic cells by suppressing estrogen biosynthesis and PGE2 signaling,” Endocrinology, vol. 154, no. 12, pp. 4803–4813, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. Y. Ohama, T. Harada, T. Iwabe, F. Taniguchi, Y. Takenaka, and N. Terakawa, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand reduced tumor necrosis factor-α-induced interleukin-8 production and growth in endometriotic stromal cells,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 311–317, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. Y. Wu and S. Guo, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and retinoid X receptor agonists synergistically suppress proliferation of immortalized endometrial stromal cells,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 2142–2147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Olivares, A. Ricci, M. Bilotas, R. I. Barañao, and G. Meresman, “The inhibitory effect of celecoxib and rosiglitazone on experimental endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 428–433, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. Aytan, A. C. Caliskan, F. Demirturk, P. Aytan, and D. R. Koseoglu, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone reduces the size of experimental endometriosis in the rat model,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 321–325, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. D. I. Lebovic, J. M. Mwenda, D. C. Chai, A. Santi, X. Xu, and T. D'Hooghe, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ receptor ligand partially prevents the development of endometrial explants in baboons: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Endocrinology, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 1846–1852, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. Donnez, P. Smoes, S. Gillerot, F. Casanas-Roux, and M. Nisolle, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1686–1690, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. McLaren, “Vascular endothelial growth factor and endometriotic angiogenesis,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. McLaren, A. Prentice, D. S. Charnock-Jones, and S. K. Smith, “Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations are elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 220–223, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. L. E. Benjamin, I. Hemo, and E. Keshet, “A plasticity window for blood vessel remodelling is defined by pericyte coverage of the preformed endothelial network and is regulated by PDGF-B and VEGF,” Development, vol. 125, no. 9, pp. 1591–1598, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. L. Hull, D. S. Charnock-Jones, C. L. K. Chan et al., “Antiangiogenic agents are effective inhibitors of endometriosis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 2889–2899, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. G. Ricci, C. N. Olivares, M. A. Bilotas, G. F. Meresman, and R. I. Barañao, “Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition on endometrial implant development in a murine model of endometriosis,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 614–622, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. A. Augoulea, G. Mastorakos, I. Lambrinoudaki, G. Christodoulakos, and G. Creatsas, “The role of the oxidative-stress in the endometriosis-related infertility,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 75–81, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. R. Pandi-Perumal, I. Trakht, V. Srinivasan et al., “Physiological effects of melatonin: role of melatonin receptors and signal transduction pathways,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 335–353, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. Güney, B. Oral, N. Karahan, and T. Mungan, “Regression of endometrial explants in a rat model of endometriosis treated with melatonin,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 934–942, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. O. Koc, B. Gunduz, A. Topcuoglu, G. Bugdayci, F. Yilmaz, and B. Duran, “Effects of pinealectomy and melatonin supplementation on endometrial explants in a rat model,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 72–76, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. K. Chwalisz, M. C. Perez, D. DeManno, C. Winkel, G. Schubert, and W. Elger, “Selective progesterone receptor modulator development and use in the treatment of leiomyomata and endometriosis,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 423–438, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. I. M. Spitz, “Clinical utility of progesterone receptor modulators and their effect on the endometrium,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 318–324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. N. Chabbert-Buffet, A. Pintiaux, and P. Bouchard, “The immninent dawn of SPRMs in obstetrics and gynecology,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 358, no. 2, pp. 232–243, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. J. Steinauer, E. A. Pritts, R. Jackson, and A. F. Jacoby, “Systematic review of mifepristone for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 1331–1336, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. F. M. Horne and D. I. Blithe, “Progesterone receptor modulators and the endometrium: changes and consequences,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 567–580, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. G. L. Mutter, C. Bergeron, L. Deligdisch et al., “The spectrum of endometrial pathology induced by progesterone receptor modulators,” Modern Pathology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 591–598, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. J. Jiang, R. Wu, Z. Wang, H. Sun, Z. Xu, and H. Xiu, “Effect of mifepristone on estrogen and progesterone receptors in human endometrial and endometriotic cells in vitro,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 995–1000, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. L. Mei, J. Bao, L. Tang et al., “A novel mifepristone-loaded implant for long-term treatment of endometriosis: in vitro and in vivo studies,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 421–427, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. L. M. Kettel, A. A. Murphy, A. J. Morales, A. Ulmann, E. E. Baulieu, and S. S. C. Yen, “Treatment of endometriosis with the antiprogesterone mifepristone (RU486),” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. K. Chwalisz, K. Mattia-Goldberg, M. Lee, W. Elger, and A. Edmonds, “Treatment of endometriosis with the novel selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) asoprisnil,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 82, supplement 2, abstract O-207, pp. S83–S84, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. B. J. Attardi, J. Burgenson, S. A. Hild, J. R. Reel, and R. P. Blye, “CDB-4124 and its putative monodemethylated metabolite, CDB-4453, are potent antiprogestins with reduced antiglucocorticoid activity: in vitro comparison to mifepristone and CDB-2914,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 188, no. 1-2, pp. 111–123, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. O. B. Ioffe, R. J. Zaino, and G. L. Mutter, “Endometrial changes from short-term therapy with CDB-4124, a selective progesterone receptor modulator,” Modern Pathology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 450–459, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. Y. Kawano, K. Nasu, H. Li et al., “Application of the histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of endometriosis: histone modifications as pathogenesis and novel therapeutic target,” Human Reproduction, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 2486–2498, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. Y. Lu, J. Nie, X. Liu, Y. Zheng, and S. W. Guo, “Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, reduces lesion growth and hyperalgesia in experimentally induced endometriosis in mice,” Human Reproduction, vol. 25, pp. 1014–1025, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  131. M. L. Mmed, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S.-W. Guo, “Valproic acid and progestin inhibit lesion growth and reduce hyperalgesia in experimentally induced endometriosis in rats,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 360–373, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. X. Liu and S. W. Guo, “A pilot study on the off-label use of valproic acid to treat adenomyosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 135, pp. 88–93, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  133. X. Liu, L. Yuan, and S. W. Guo, “Valproic acid as a therapy for adenomyosis: a comparative case series,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 904–912, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus