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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 198539, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/198539
Review Article

Immunological Dysregulation in Multiple Myeloma Microenvironment

1Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Haematology Section, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
2Fondazione Veronesi, Roma, Italy
3Division of Hematology, AOU “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele”, Catania, Italy

Received 11 April 2014; Accepted 20 May 2014; Published 11 June 2014

Academic Editor: Lijun Jia

Copyright © 2014 Alessandra Romano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a systemic hematologic disease due to uncontrolled proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells (PC) in bone marrow (BM). Emerging in other solid and liquid cancers, the host immune system and the microenvironment have a pivotal role for PC growth, proliferation, survival, migration, and resistance to drugs and are responsible for some clinical manifestations of MM. In MM, microenvironment is represented by the cellular component of a normal bone marrow together with extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factors produced by both stromal cells and PC themselves. All these components are able to protect PC from cytotoxic effect of chemo- and radiotherapy. This review is focused on the role of immunome to sustain MM progression, the emerging role of myeloid derived suppressor cells, and their potential clinical implications as novel therapeutic target.