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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 236939, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/236939
Research Article

Extracts from Glioma Tissues following Cryoablation Have Proapoptosis, Antiproliferation, and Anti-Invasion Effects on Glioma Cells

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery Institute of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory on Brain Function Rebuild and Rehabilitation of Guangdong, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China

Received 12 December 2013; Revised 14 March 2014; Accepted 21 March 2014; Published 10 April 2014

Academic Editor: Manoor Prakash Hande

Copyright © 2014 Tianzhu Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. This study is to investigate the in vivo apoptotic processes in glioma tissues following cryoablation and the effects of glioma tissue extracts on GL261 glioma cells in vitro. Methods. TUNEL and flow cytometry analysis were performed to detect the apoptotic processes in the glioma tissues following cryoablation and in the GL261 cells treated with cryoablated tumor extracts. The scratch assay, the transwell assay, and Western blot analysis were carried out to evaluate the effects of cryoablated tumor extracts on the migration, invasion, and proliferation of tumor cells. Results. Our in vivo results indicated that the rapid-onset apoptosis was induced via the intrinsic pathway and the delayed apoptosis was triggered through the extrinsic pathway. The in vitro results showed that extracts from glioma tissues following cryoablation induced apoptosis via extrinsic pathways in GL261 glioma cells. Furthermore, cryoablated tumor extracts significantly inhibited the migration and proliferation of these cells, which would be related to the inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway and the activation of P38 pathway. Conclusion. Glioma cells surviving in cryoablation undergo intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis. Augmenting the induction of apoptosis or enhancing the cryosensitization of tumor cells by coupling cryoablation with specific chemotherapy effectively increases the efficiency of this therapeutic treatment.