BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Relating Education, Brain Structure, and Cognition: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Table 1

Sample descriptive.

CharacteristicsOverall Sample
()
Male
()
Female
()
/
male versus female

Age, years (SD)70.4 (1.42)70.4 (1.44)70.4 (1.40) 0.003
 Range68–7368–7368–73
Race1.74
 Caucasian, (%)254 (95.5)137 (95.1)117 (95.9)
 Asian, (%)6 (2.3)4 (2.78)2 (1.64)
 Other, (%)4 (1.5)1 (0.694)3 (2.46)
Education, years (SD)14.2 (2.57)15.0 (2.27)13.3 (2.61)32.3***
 Range5–199–195–19
Cardiovascular disease risk factors7.41
 None, (%)15 (5.6)7 (4.9)8 (6.6)
 One, (%)70 (26.3)36 (25.0)34 (27.9)
 Two, (%)102 (38.3)49 (34.0)53 (43.4)
 Three, (%)62 (23.3)39 (27.1)23 (18.9)
 Four, (%)17 (6.4)13 (27.1)4 (3.3)
MMSE, score (SD)29.4 (0.874)29.3 (0.881)29.4 (0.862)2.13
 Range26–3026–3026–30
BMI, score (SD)26.6 (4.91)26.5 (3.73)26.8 (6.02)0.141
 Range18–6020–3918–60
Mean arterial blood pressure, level (SD)103.9 (11.2)105.0 (11.5)102.6 (10.7)3.02
 Range81–15582–15581–130
Average systolic pressure, level (SD)149.7 (19.5)150.3 (19.9)148.9 (18.9)0.334
 Range108.5–219.0108.5–219.0109–205
Average diastolic pressure, level (SD)81.0 (9.84)82.4 (10.0)79.5 (99.41)5.75*
 Range57.5–12459.5–12457.5–104.5
Smoke4.25*
 History or current, (%)114 (42.9)70 (48.6)44 (36.1)
Cognitive test performance
 Immediate recall, mean (SD)6.89 (2.03)6.47 (1.74)7.40 (2.24)14.7***
  Range2–133–112–13
 Delayed recall, mean (SD)6.07 (2.18)5.70 (1.90)6.50 (2.41)9.13**
  Range0–121–110–12
 Digit backward, mean (SD)5.28 (2.03)5.62 (2.01)4.88 (1.99)9.07**
  Range1–101–101–10
 Symbol Digit Modalities Test, mean (SD)49.7 (8.53)49.4 (8.32)49.9 (8.79)0.32
  Range16–7520–7516–71
 COWAT A-words, mean (SD)12.8 (5.39)13.3 (5.39)12.3 (5.38)2.49
  Range0–302–300–29
 COWAT F-words, mean (SD)14.3 (4.94)14.7 (4.98)13.9 (4.88)1.59
  Range4–316–314–30
 Spot the Word, mean (SD)53.5 (5.08)54.4 (4.55)52.4 (5.46)10.2**
  Range34–6034–6037–60
 Boston Naming Test, mean (SD)13.9 (1.31)13.9 (1.29)13.8 (1.34)1.51
  Range7–157–159–15

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