BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Signalling Molecules in the Urothelium

Figure 2

Schematic representation of acetylcholine release and its effects in the urinary bladder wall. Acetylcholine is released from urothelial cells and may target nicotinic (nic.) and muscarinic receptors (M) and thereby modulate ATP and nitric oxide release by the urothelium and possibly also by myofibroblasts (1). Moreover, acetylcholine may also activate nicotinic, M2, M3, and M4 receptors on afferent nerve terminals and therefore modulate sensory signalling (2). Urothelial acetylcholine may also directly affect contraction (3).
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