BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

New Perspectives on Antiacne Plant Drugs: Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

Table 2

Novel drug delivery systems for antiacne agent.

Novel drug delivery carrierDrug entrappedMethod of preparationProblem statementAdvantagesReference

NanoparticlesChitosan AlginateUltrasonicationLow solubility Enhanced antimicrobial activity[128]
MinocyclineIon pairingLack of drug loading and entrapment efficiency due to hydrophilicity of the drugEnhanced drug loading and entrapment efficiency and controlled release[129]
Azelaic acidEmulsification solvent diffusionFewer side effectsEnhanced drug retention at PSU and stability[130]
TriclosanSolvent displacementInsufficient permeation and absorption via cutaneous routeNon-irritant to skin, enhanced stability[131]
Cyproterone acetateUltrasonicationSystemic antiandrogenic effectsIncreased skin penetration and absorption[132]
Garcinia mangostana Solvent Displacement;
Ion gelation reaction
Water insolubilityIncreased follicular penetration and absorption; Increased therapeutic activity[133, 134]

NiosomesGalliderminFreeze dryingFor oral administration only and systemic pass demeritsTopical formulation with enhanced chemical stability[135]
TretinoinThin film hydrationPhotodegradationIncreased accumulation in superficial stratum and stability, Increased drug release and entrapment efficiencies[136, 137]
Rosmarinic acidReverse phase evaporation Low water solubilityIncreased skin retention of drug and facilitated prolong release[121]

LiposomesIsotretinoinSonicationSkin irritation, very low water solubility, difficulty to incorporate in topical base, photodegradationPotential for skin targeting, prolonging drug release, reduction of photodegradation and skin irritation[138]
Clindamycin hydrochlorideFilm formationLesser reduction in number of lesionsEnhanced antiacne activity and sustained release of drug[139]
FinasterideFilm formationOnly oral administration possibleTopical application with enhanced drug concentration[140]
TretinoinFilm formationSkin irritant, photo instabilityEnhanced local tolerability and 5-6 times increase comedolytic activity,
Reduced photo instability
[141, 142]
Tea tree oilUltrasonicationLesser absorption via follicular routeFacilitated follicular route absorption[143]
Salicylic acidThin film hydration Skin irritantIncreased entrapment efficiency and stability[144]
Cyproterone acetateSystemic antiandrogenic effectsIncreased activity by reducing acne lesions and adverse effects[145]
Benzoyl peroxideFilm hydrationSkin irritationImproved antibacterial activity, reduced irritation[146]

Solid lipid nanoparticlesIsotretinoinMicroemulsificationTeratogenicity, mucocutaneous problems like cheilitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, skin fragility and xerosis, psychological disorders, erythema, dryness, itching, stinging, skin peelingReduced dermal irritation, increased therapeutic performance[147]
Retinoic acidHot melt homogenizationSensitive to sunlight, eczematous irritation, erythema, interaction with other applied productsComedolytic effect, reduction in RA induced irritation[148]
Neem oilDouble emulsificationLesser drug absorptionProlonged treatment of acne[149]
TretinoinHot high pressure homogenizationSkin irritation and chemical instabilityHigh encapsulation efficacy, physical stability and absence of cytotoxicity[127]
Terbinafine hydrochlorideSolvent InjectionLonger duration of treatmentControlled release, drug targeting[150]

NanosuspensionTretinoinPrecipitationPoor water solubility and photostabilityImproved drug permeation and UV irradiation stability[151]

NanoemulsionTretinoin, TetracyclineSonicationSkin irritation, a burning sensation, and peelingEnhanced drug permeation and antibacterial activity[152]

Nano lipid carriersTretinoin, TetracyclineSonicationSkin irritation, a burning sensation, and peelingEnhanced drug permeation and antibacterial activity[152]

MicroemulsionsAzelaic acidLarge and frequent dosingEnhanced stability[153]
Niflumic acidHomogenizationWeak solubility in oil and aqueous phasesIncreased bioavailability at lesser concentration[154]
Retinoic acidHomogenizationSystemic side effectsEnhanced skin accumulation of retinoic acid[155]

MicrospheresBenzoyl peroxideEmulsificationSkin irritationAppropriate reduction in P. acnes count, reduced skin irritation[156]
RetinoidEmulsificationSkin irritation and instabilityReduced irritation and enhanced stability[157]

Hydrogel PatchesTriclosanFilm gelationInsufficient permeation and absorption via cutaneous routeEnhanced transdermal penetration[158]

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