Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 301631, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/301631
Research Article

Body Pigmentation as a Risk Factor for the Formation of Intracranial Aneurysms

1Department of Psychology, Biological Psychology Unit, Karl-Franzens-University, Universitätsplatz 2/III, 8010 Graz, Austria
2Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University, Auenbruggerplatz 2, 8036 Graz, Austria
3Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Medical University, Auenbruggerplatz 2, 8036 Graz, Austria

Received 20 February 2014; Revised 6 May 2014; Accepted 9 May 2014; Published 22 May 2014

Academic Editor: Maxim E. Darvin

Copyright © 2014 Günter Schulter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Vogel, R. Verreault, J.-F. Turcotte, M. Kiesmann, and M. Berthel, “Intracerebral aneurysms: a review with special attention to geriatric aspects,” Journals of Gerontology A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 520–524, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Chalouhi, M. S. Ali, R. M. Starke et al., “Cigarette smoke and inflammation: role in cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2012, Article ID 271582, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. B. Krischek and M. Tatagiba, “The influence of genetics on intracranial aneurysm formation and rupture: current knowledge and its possible impact on future treatment,” Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, vol. 33, pp. 131–147, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. M. Ruigrok and G. J. E. Rinkel, “Genetics of intracranial aneurysms,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 1049–1055, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Chalouhi, M. S. Ali, P. M. Jabbour et al., “Biology of intracranial aneurysms: role of inflammation,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1659–1676, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. Tulamo, J. Frösen, J. Hernesniemi, and M. Niemelä, “Inflammatory changes in the aneurysm wall: a review,” Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 120–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Z. Zhang, M. G. Zhao, G. B. Liang, Z. Q. Song, and Z. Q. Li, “Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the risk of intracranial aneurysm,” Inflammation, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1195–1200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. F. C. Brito and L. Kos, “Timeline and distribution of melanocyte precursors in the mouse heart,” Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 464–470, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. H. Mjaatvedt, C. B. Kern, R. A. Norris, S. Fairey, and C. L. Cave, “Normal distribution of melanocytes in the mouse heart,” The Anatomical Record A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. 748–757, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. D. Levin, M. L. Min, N. B. Petrenko et al., “Melanocyte-like cells in the heart and pulmonary veins contribute to atrial arrhythmia triggers,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 3420–3436, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. O. Fetissov, M. A. Barcza, M. M. Meguid, and A. Oler, “Hypophysial and meningeal melanocytes in the Zucker rat,” Pigment Cell Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 323–330, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Balani, F. C. Brito, L. Kos, and A. Agarwal, “Melanocyte pigmentation stiffens murine cardiac tricuspid valve leaflet,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 6, no. 40, pp. 1097–1102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Jiang, X.-M. Liu, X. Dai et al., “Regulation of DHICA-mediated antioxidation by dopachrome tautomerase: implication for skin photoprotection against UVA radiation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1144–1151, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R.-H. Zhou, A. E. Vendrov, I. Tchivilev et al., “Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aortic stiffening with age: the role of smooth muscle cell function,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 745–755, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Brzoska, T. A. Luger, C. Maaser, C. Abels, and M. Böhm, “α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and related tripeptides: biochemistry, antiinflammatory and protective effects in vitro and in vivo, and future perspectives for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 581–602, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Catania, C. Lonati, A. Sordi, A. Carlin, P. Leonardi, and S. Gatti, “The melanocortin system in control of inflammation,” TheScientificWorldJournal, vol. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Maaser, K. Kannengiesser, and T. Kucharzik, “Role of the melanocortin system in inflammation,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1072, pp. 123–134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. De Angelis, U. G. Sahm, A. R. H. Ahmed et al., “Identification of a melanocortin receptor expressed by murine brain microvascular endothelial cells in culture,” Microvascular Research, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 25–34, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Hartmeyer, T. Scholzen, E. Becher, R. S. Bhardwaj, T. Schwarz, and T. A. Luger, “Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells express the melanocortin receptor type 1 and produce increased levels of IL-8 upon stimulation with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 159, no. 4, pp. 1930–1937, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  20. T. E. Scholzen, T. Brzoska, D.-H. Kalden et al., “Expression of functional melanocortin receptors and proopiomelanocortin peptides by human dermal microvascular endothelial cells,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 885, pp. 239–253, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Yajima and L. Larue, “The location of heart melanocytes is specified and the level of pigmentation in the heart may correlate with coat color,” Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 471–476, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. C. Etchevers, C. Vincent, N. M. Le Douarin, and G. F. Couly, “The cephalic neural crest provides pericytes and smooth muscle cells to all blood vessels of the face and forebrain,” Development, vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 1059–1068, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. M. Le Douarin, G. W. Calloni, and E. Dupin, “The stem cells of the neural crest,” Cell Cycle, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1013–1019, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Inagawa, “Site of ruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms in patients in Izumo City, Japan,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 72–84, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. H. M. Vlak, A. Algra, R. Brandenburg, and G. J. E. Rinkel, “Prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, with emphasis on sex, age, comorbidity, country, and time period: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 626–636, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Ito and K. Wakamatsu, “Human hair melanins: what we have learned and have not learned from mouse coat color pigmentation,” Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 63–74, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. R. Killeen, “An alternative to null-hypothesis significance tests,” Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 345–353, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. B. Hoffmann, B. Lorenz, A. B. Morland, and L. C. Schmidtborn, “Misrouting of the optic nerves in albinism: estimation of the extent with visual evoked potentials,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3892–3898, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. A. H. von dem Hagen, G. C. Houston, M. B. Hoffmann, and A. B. Morland, “Pigmentation predicts the shift in the line of decussation in humans with albinism,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 503–511, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Grant and K. E. Binns, “Reduced influence of the ipsilateral ear on spatial tuning of auditory neurons in the albino superior colliculus: a knock-on effect of anomalies of the acoustic chiasm?” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 478–488, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. C. Schachter, B. J. Ransil, and N. Geschwind, “Associations of handedness with hair color and learning disabilities,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 25, no. 1B, pp. 269–276, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. I. Otaka, K. Kumagai, Y. Inagaki, M. Shimoyama, K. Saegusa, and T. Hara, “Simple and inexpensive software designed for the evaluation of color,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 140–142, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. B. Fitzpatrick, “The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 869–871, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Steingrüber and G. Lienert, Hand-Dominanz-Test, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 1971.
  35. N. Geschwind and P. Behan, “Left-handedness: association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 79, no. 16, pp. 5097–5100, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. J. Davidson, C. C. Coe, I. Dolski, and B. Donzella, “Individual differences in prefrontal activation asymmetry predict natural killer cell activity at rest and in response to challenge,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 93–108, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. J. Neveu, “Cerebral lateralization and the immune system,” International Review of Neurobiology, vol. 52, pp. 303–323, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. J. Meador, D. W. Loring, P. G. Ray, S. W. Helman, B. R. Vazquez, and P. J. Neveu, “Role of cerebral lateralization in control of immune processes in humans,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 840–844, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Clow, S. Lambert, P. Evans, F. Hucklebridge, and K. Higuchi, “An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 57–64, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Lengen, M. Regard, H. Joller, T. Landis, and P. Lalive, “Anomalous brain dominance and the immune system: do left-handers have specific immunological patterns?” Brain and Cognition, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 188–193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Q. L. Fu, Y. Q. Shen, M. X. Gao, J. Dong, P. J. Neveu, and K. S. Li, “Brain interleukin asymmetries and paw preference in mice,” Neuroscience, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 639–647, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y.-Q. Shen, G. Hébert, E. Moze, K.-S. Li, and P. J. Neveu, “Asymmetrical distribution of brain interleukin-6 depends on lateralization in mice,” NeuroImmunoModulation, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–194, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. L. Kadekaro, S. Leachman, R. J. Kavanagh et al., “Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype: an important determinant of the damage response of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 3850–3860, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. B. Liem, S. C. Hollensead, T. V. Joiner, and D. I. Sessler, “Women with red hair report a slightly increased rate of bruising but have normal coagulation tests,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 313–318, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. S. Sommers, J. D. Fargo, R. B. Baker, B. S. Fisher, C. Buschur, and T. M. Zink, “Health disparities in the forensic sexual assault examination related to skin color,” Journal of Forensic Nursing, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 191–200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. M. Hasan, N. Chalouhi, P. Jabbour et al., “Evidence that acetylsalicylic acid attenuates inflammation in the walls of human cerebral aneurysms: preliminary results,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 2, no. 1, Article ID e000019, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  47. D. M. Hasan, K. B. Mahaney, R. D. Brown et al., “Aspirin as a promising agent for decreasing incidence of cerebral aneurysm rupture,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 3156–3162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Catania, S. Gatti, G. Colombo, and J. M. Lipton, “Targeting melanocortin receptors as a novel strategy to control inflammation,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Lindskog, K. Ebefors, M. E. Johansson et al., “Melanocortin 1 receptor agonists reduce proteinuria,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1290–1298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. E. Edling, D. Gomes, T. Weeden et al., “Immunosuppressive activity of a novel peptide analog of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in experimental autoimmune uveitis,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 236, no. 1-2, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Auriemma, T. Brzoska, L. Klenner et al., “α-MSH-stimulated tolerogenic dendritic cells induce functional regulatory T cells and ameliorate ongoing skin inflammation,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 1814–1824, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. G. Leoni, M.-B. Voisin, K. Carlson, S. J. Getting, S. Nourshargh, and M. Perretti, “The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 171–180, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Rinne, W. Nordlund, I. Heinonen et al., “α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone regulates vascular NO availability and protects against endothelial dysfunction,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 360–368, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. C. Dessinioti, C. Antoniou, A. Katsambas, and A. J. Stratigos, “Melanocortin 1 receptor variants: functional role and pigmentary associations,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 978–987, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Branicki, F. Liu, K. Van Duijn et al., “Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants,” Human Genetics, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 443–454, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. A. Sturm and M. Larsson, “Genetics of human iris colour and patterns,” Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 544–562, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. F. Liu, K. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling et al., “Eye color and the prediction of complex phenotypes from genotypes,” Current Biology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. R192–R193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Pośpiech, J. Draus-Barini, T. Kupiec, A. Wojas-Pelc, and W. Branicki, “Gene-gene interactions contribute to eye colour variation in humans,” Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 447–455, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. A. Burch, K. Soares-Weiser, D. J. B. St John et al., “Diagnostic accuracy of faecal occult blood tests used in screening for colorectal cancer: a systematic review,” Journal of Medical Screening, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 132–137, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus