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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 308654, 9 pages
Review Article

Evidence of Inflammatory System Involvement in Parkinson’s Disease

1National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore 308433
2Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore 169857
3Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138648
4Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117545
5Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore 169608
6Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute (SGH Campus), 20 College Road, Academia Level 4, Singapore 169856

Received 11 April 2014; Revised 30 May 2014; Accepted 30 May 2014; Published 24 June 2014

Academic Editor: Amit K. Srivastava

Copyright © 2014 Yinxia Chao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease underpinned by both genetic and environmental etiologic factors. Recent findings suggest that inflammation may be a pathogenic factor in the onset and progression of both familial and sporadic PD. Understanding the precise role of inflammatory factors in PD will likely lead to understanding of how the disease arises. In vivo evidence for inflammation in PD includes dysregulated molecular mediators such as cytokines, complement system and its receptors, resident microglial activation, peripheral immune cells invasion, and altered composition and phenotype of peripheral immune cells. The growing awareness of these factors has prompted novel approaches to modulate the immune system, although it remains whether these approaches can be used in humans. Influences of ageing and differential exposure to environmental agents suggest potential host-pathogen specific pathophysiologic factors. There is a clear need for research to further unravel the pathophysiologic role of immunity in PD, with the potential of developing new therapeutic targets for this debilitating condition.