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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 310194, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/310194
Research Article

Rapid Diagnosis of Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Xpert MTB/RIF Assay Using Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children and National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, 56 Nan Li Shi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045, China

Received 21 March 2014; Revised 15 July 2014; Accepted 22 July 2014; Published 6 August 2014

Academic Editor: Frederick D. Quinn

Copyright © 2014 Qing-Qin Yin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay on childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF in comparison with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture for diagnosing childhood PTB using Chinese “composite clinical reference standard” (CCRS) as reference standard. Two hundred fifty-five children with suspected PTB were enrolled at Beijing Children’s Hospital from September 2010 to July 2013. Compared with Chinese CCRS, the sensitivity of AFB microscopy, MTB culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 8.4%, 28.9%, and 53.0%, respectively. The specificity of three assays was all 100%. Xpert MTB/RIF assay could detect 33.9% of cases with negative MTB culture, and 48.7% of cases with negative AFB microscopy. Younger age (<3 years), absence of BCG scar, and contact with TB patient were found significantly associated with a positive result of Xpert MTB/RIF assay. In conclusion, Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF can assist in diagnosing childhood PTB much faster when fiberoptic bronchoscopy is necessary according to the chest radiograph.