BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Role of Nutrient-Sensing Signals in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

Table 1

The roles of mTOR (mTORC1) in diabetic nephropathy.

Experimental type Renal outcome/phenotype Mechanism Reference

S6 Kinase 1−/− mice Renal hypertrophy↓ Inhibition of p70S6 kinase Chen et al. [18]
Rapamycin (db/db mice) Renal and glomerular hypertrophy↓ eEF2 kinase phosphorylation and laminin 1 expression Sataranatarajan et al. [19]
Rapamycin (STZ-diabetic mice) Renal hypertrophy↓ Inhibition of p70S6 kinase Sakaguchi et al. [20]
Sirolimus (STZ-diabetic rats) Glomerular hypertrophy↓, podocyte loss↓ Decreases of TGF- and VEGF expression Wittmann et al. [21]
Rapamycin (db/db mice) Albuminuria↓, glomerular lesion↓ Inhibition of p70S6 kinase Mori et al. [22]
Rapamycin (STZ-diabetic rats) Albuminuria↓, glomerular lesion↓, and inflammation↓ Decreases of TGF- , VEGF, and MCP-1 expression Yang et al. [23]
Rapamycin (STZ-diabetic rats) Albuminuria↓, glomerular lesion↓ Decreases of TGF- , CTGF, and -SMA expression Lloberas et al. [24]
Gas6−/− mice Glomerular hypertrophy↓, mesangial expansion↓ Inhibition of akt and p70S6 kinase Nagai et al. [25]
Rapamycin (HFD-induced obesity)Proximal tubular cell damage↓Increase of autophagy activityYamahara et al. [26]
Podocyte-specific raptor-heterozygous mice (db/db mice)Albuminuria↓, glomerular lesion↓Inhibition of mislocalization of nephrinInoki et al. [27]
Podocyte-specific raptor-heterozygous mice (STZ-diabetic mice)Albuminuria↓, glomerular lesion↓Inhibition of podocyte loss Godel et al. [28]

STZ; streptozotocin, PTECs: proximal tubular epithelial cells, TGF : transforming growth factor , VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor, MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CTGF: connective tissue growth factor, -SMA: -smooth muscle actin, and PARP: p(ADP-ribose) polymerases.

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