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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 324230, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/324230
Review Article

Peroxynitrite and Peroxiredoxin in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Amebic Liver Abscess

1Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, IPN, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 México, DF, Mexico
2Departamento de Morfología, Escuela Superior de Medicina, IPN, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 México, DF, Mexico
3Departamento de Bioquimica, Escuela Superior de Medicina, IPN, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 México, DF, Mexico

Received 5 November 2013; Accepted 12 March 2014; Published 15 April 2014

Academic Editor: Marlene Benchimol

Copyright © 2014 Judith Pacheco-Yepez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The molecular mechanisms by which Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic liver abscess (ALA) are still not fully understood. Amebic mechanisms of adherence and cytotoxic activity are pivotal for amebic survival but apparently do not directly cause liver abscess. Abundant evidence indicates that chronic inflammation (resulting from an inadequate immune response) is probably the main cause of ALA. Reports referring to inflammatory mechanisms of liver damage mention a repertoire of toxic molecules by the immune response (especially nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates) and cytotoxic substances released by neutrophils and macrophages after being lysed by amoebas (e.g., defensins, complement, and proteases). Nevertheless, recent evidence downplays these mechanisms in abscess formation and emphasizes the importance of peroxynitrite (ONOO). It seems that the defense mechanism of amoebas against ONOO, namely, the amebic thioredoxin system (including peroxiredoxin), is superior to that of mammals. The aim of the present text is to define the importance of ONOO as the main agent of liver abscess formation during amebic invasion, and to explain the superior capacity of amoebas to defend themselves against this toxic agent through the peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin system.