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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 324364, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/324364
Review Article

Protection of Coronary Endothelial Function during Cardiac Surgery: Potential of Targeting Endothelial Ion Channels in Cardioprotection

1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Institute of Vascular Medicine, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, and Institute of Innovative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
2The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China
3TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital, Tianjin 300457, China
4The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University and Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310015, China
5Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong

Received 26 March 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 13 July 2014

Academic Editor: M.-Saadeh Suleiman

Copyright © 2014 Qin Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Vascular endothelium plays a critical role in the control of blood flow by producing vasoactive factors to regulate vascular tone. Ion channels, in particular, K+ channels and Ca2+-permeable channels in endothelial cells, are essential to the production and function of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors. Impairment of coronary endothelial function occurs in open heart surgery that may result in reduction of coronary blood flow and thus in an inadequate myocardial perfusion. Hyperkalemic exposure and concurrent ischemia-reperfusion during cardioplegic intervention compromise NO and EDHF-mediated function and the impairment involves alterations of K+ channels, that is, and , and Ca2+-permeable TRP channels in endothelial cells. Pharmacological modulation of these channels during ischemia-reperfusion and hyperkalemic exposure show promising results on the preservation of NO and EDHF-mediated endothelial function, which suggests the potential of targeting endothelial K+ and TRP channels for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery.