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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 351095, 12 pages
Research Article

Pathway Bridge Based Multiobjective Optimization Approach for Lurking Pathway Prediction

1Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA
2Radiology Comprehensive Cancer Center Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27103, USA

Received 28 January 2014; Accepted 16 March 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editor: Xing-Ming Zhao

Copyright © 2014 Rengjing Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Ovarian carcinoma immunoreactive antigen-like protein 2 (OCIAD2) is a protein with unknown function. Frequently methylated or downregulated, OCIAD2 has been observed in kinds of tumors, and TGFβ signaling has been proved to induce the expression of OCIAD2. However, current pathway analysis tools do not cover the genes without reported interactions like OCIAD2 and also miss some significant genes with relatively lower expression. To investigate potential biological milieu of OCIAD2, especially in cancer microenvironment, a nova approach pbMOO was created to find the potential pathways from TGFβ to OCIAD2 by searching on the pathway bridge, which consisted of cancer enriched looping patterns from the complicated entire protein interactions network. The pbMOO approach was further applied to study the modulator of ligand TGFβ1, receptor TGFβR1, intermediate transfer proteins, transcription factor, and signature OCIAD2. Verified by literature and public database, the pathway TGFβ1- TGFβR1- SMAD2/3- SMAD4/AR-OCIAD2 was detected, which concealed the androgen receptor (AR) which was the possible transcription factor of OCIAD2 in TGFβ signal, and it well explained the mechanism of TGFβ induced OCIAD2 expression in cancer microenvironment, therefore providing an important clue for the future functional analysis of OCIAD2 in tumor pathogenesis.