Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 373286, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/373286
Review Article

Total Reconstruction of the Auricle: Our Experiences on Indications and Recent Techniques

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 München, Germany
2Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 München, Germany

Received 29 November 2013; Revised 9 February 2014; Accepted 10 February 2014; Published 14 April 2014

Academic Editor: Poramate Pitak-Arnnop

Copyright © 2014 K. Storck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. von Szymanowski, “Ohrbildung, otoplastik,” in Handbuch der Operativen Chirurgie, J. von Szymenowski, Ed., pp. 303–306, Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, Germany, 1870. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. Guo, O. Schwedtner, and M. Klein, “A retrospective study of implant-retained auricular prostheses,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 539–543, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Weerda, Surgery of the Auricle: Tumors-Trauma-Defects Abnormalities, Thieme Medical Publishers, 2007.
  4. X. Luo, J. Yang, Q. Yang, and X. Wang, “Classification and reconstruction of posttraumatic ear defrmity,” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 654–657, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Louis, R. Aponte-Wesson, R. Fernandes, and J. Clemow, “Autogeneous and prosthetic reconstruction of the ear,” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 271–286, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. H. Marx, “Die Mißbildungen des Ohres,” in Handbuch der HNO-Heilkunde, D. A. Kahler, Ed., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1926, (German). View at Google Scholar
  7. R. C. Tanzer, Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 1977.
  8. R. C. Tanzer, “The constricted (cup and lop) ear,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 406–415, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Nagata, “Modification of the stages in total reconstruction of the auricle: part I. Grafting the three-dimensional costal cartilage framework for lobule-type microtia,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 221–230, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Nagata, “Modification of the stages in total reconstruction of the auricle: part II. Grafting the three-dimensional costal cartilage framework for concha-type microtia,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 231–242, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Nagata, “Modification of the stages in total reconstruction of the auricle: part III. Grafting the three-dimensional costal cartilage framework for small concha-type microtia,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 243–253, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. B. Roberson, H. Goldsztein, A. Balaker, S. A. Schendel, and J. F. Reinisch, “HEAR MAPS a classification for congenital microtia/atresia based on the evaluation of 742 patients,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 1551–1554, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. L. V. Reddy and M. F. Zide, “Reconstruction of skin cancer defects of the auricle,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1457–1471, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Nagata, “A new method of total reconstruction of the auricle for microtia,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 187–201, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Weerda and R. Siegert, Surgery of the Auricle Part I: Surgery of Auricular Malformations, An Introduction with Clinical Examples, Endo Press, Tuttlingen, Germany, 2012.
  16. J. M. Converse, “Construction of the auricle in unilateral congenital microtia,” Transactions of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 995–1013, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. C. Tanzer, “Total reconstruction of the auricle. The evolution of a plan of treatment,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 523–533, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Brent, “The correction of microtia with autogenous cartilage grafts: I. The classic deformity,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Brent, “The correction of microtia with autogenous cartilage grafts: II. Atypical and complex deformities,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Weerda, “Reconstructive surgery of the auricle,” Facial Plastic Surgery, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 399–410, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Firmin, “Ear reconstruction in cases of typical microtia. Personal experience based on 352 microtic ear corrections,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 35–47, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Siegert, “Neue Wege bei der chirurgischen Behandlung der kongenitalen Gehörgangsatresie,” HNO, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 275–286, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. R. Staudenmaier, “Optimierung der Ohrmuschelrekonstruktion mit autologem Rippenknorpel,” HNO, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 749–755, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. G. L. Zhang, J. M. Zhang, W. Q. Liang, Y. H. Chen, and C. Y. Ji, “Implant double tissue expanders superposingly in mastoid region for total ear reconstruction without skin grafts,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 76, no. 10, pp. 1515–1519, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. Storck, M. Bas, A. Gurr, R. Staudenmaier, and T. Stark, “Complications in 312 cases of nasal and auricular reconstruction via autologous rib cartilage,” Laryngorhinootologie, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 808–814, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. R. Siegert and R. Magritz, “Rippenknorpelrekonstruktion nach ausgedehnter Knorpelentnahme,” Laryngorhinootologie, vol. 84, pp. 474–478, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. D. Williams, T. Romo III, A. P. Sclafani, and H. Cho, “Porous high-density polyethylene implants in auricular reconstruction,” Archives of Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 578–583, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Berghaus, “Porous polyethylene in reconstructive head and neck surgery,” Archives of Otolaryngology, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 154–160, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Cenzi, A. Farina, L. Zuccarino, and F. Carinci, “Clinical outcome of 285 Medpor grafts used for craniofacial reconstruction,” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 526–530, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Braun, S. Gratza, S. Becker et al., “Auricular reconstruction with porous polyethylene frameworks: outcome and patient benefit in 65 children and adults,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 1201–1212, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Romo III, M. S. Fozo, and A. P. Sclafani, “Microtia reconstruction using a porous polyethylene framework,” Facial Plastic Surgery, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. D. Cronin, “Use of a silastic frame for total and subtotal reconstruction of the external ear: preliminary reort,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 399–405, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. B. Lynch, A. Pousti, J. E. Doyle, and S. R. Lewis, “Our experiences with silastic ear implants,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 283–285, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Berghaus, “Implants for reconstructive surgery oft he nose and ears,” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery, vol. 6, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. F. Reinisch and S. Lewin, “Ear reconstruction using a porous polyethylene framework and temporoparietal fascia flap,” Facial Plastic Surgery, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 181–189, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Alexander, N. Rajacic, M. K. Ibrahim, and S. Al-Jamil, “The combined posterior temporoparietaland galeal fascial flap: a new flap in the elevation of the constructed auricle (second stage of microtia correction),” British Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 582–584, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. H. Wilkes, J. F. Wolfaardt, and M. Dent, “Osseointegrated alloplastic versus autogenous ear reconstruction: criteria for treatment selection,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 967–979, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. H. Thorne, L. E. Brecht, J. P. Bradley, J. P. Levine, P. Hammerschlag, and M. T. Longaker, “Auricular reconstruction: indications for autogenous and prosthetic techniques,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 1241–1252, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. A. Federspil, “Ear epistheses as an alternative to autogenous reconstruction,” Facial Plastic Surgery, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 190–203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Siegert, “New surgical techniques for the treatment of auricular atresia,” HNO, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 275–288, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. S. Nadaraja, R. K. Gurgel, J. Kim, and K. W. Chang, “Hearing outcomes of atresia surgery versus osseointegrated bone conduction device in patients with congenital aural atresia: a systematic review,” Otology & Neurotology, vol. 34, pp. 1394–1399, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Kiefer and R. Staudenmaier, “Combined aesthetic and functional reconstruction of ear malformations,” Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 68, pp. 81–94, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. T. Green Jr. and D. R. Dickens, “Culture model for investigation of cartilage matrix formation,” Surgical Forum, vol. 23, pp. 453–455, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. von Bomhard, J. Veit, C. Bermueller et al., “Prefabrocation of 3D cartilage constructs: towards a tissue engineering auricle—a model tested in rabbits,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e71667, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. D. A. Bichara, N.-A. O'Sullivan, I. Pomerantseva et al., “The tissue-engineered auricle: past, present, and future,” Tissue Engineering B: Reviews, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. Zhou, I. Pomerantseva, E. K. Bassett et al., “Engineering ear constructs with a composite scaffold to maintain dimensions,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 17, no. 11-12, pp. 1573–1581, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Staudenmaier, N. T. Hoang, V. Mandlik et al., “Customized tissue engineering for ear reconstruction,” Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 68, pp. 120–131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. T. Hoang, C. Hoehnke, P. T. Hien, V. Mandlik, A. Feucht, and R. Staudenmaier, “Neovascularization and free microsurgical transfer of in vitro cartilage-engineered constructs,” Microsurgery, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Nagata and B. D. Brent, “Modification of the stages in total reconstruction of the auricle: part IV. Ear elevation for the constructed auricle,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 254–268, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Soukup, S. A. Mashhadi, and N. W. Bulstrode, “Health-related quality-of-life assessment and surgical outcomes for auricular reconstruction using autologous costal cartilage,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 632–640, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Steffen, B. Wollenberg, I. R. König, and H. Frenzel, “A prospective evaluation of psychosocial outcomes following ear reconstruction with rib cartilage in microtia,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 1466–1473, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Sivayoham and T. Woolford, “Current opinion on auricular reconstruction,” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery, vol. 20, pp. 287–290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. I. Younis, D. Gault, W. Sabbagh, and N. V. Kang, “Patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcomes after ear reconstruction with a Branemark-type, bone-anchored, ear prosthesis: a 16 year review,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1650–1655, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus