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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 384204, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/384204
Research Article

Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan

Received 28 February 2014; Accepted 6 May 2014; Published 19 May 2014

Academic Editor: José Domingos Fontana

Copyright © 2014 Naseer Ali Shah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract ( μg/mL) in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active ( μg/mL) against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug ( μg/mL). All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range ( ) in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.