BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Platelet-Rich Plasma in Bone Regeneration: Engineering the Delivery for Improved Clinical Efficacy

Table 1

Some PRP bioactive molecules and their physiologic roles [127]. Reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons.

General categorySpecific moleculesPhysiologic role

Adhesive proteinsFibrinogen, fibronectin, vitronectin, thrombospondin-1, von Willebrand factor, and laminin-8Cell contact interactions, cellular adhesion, chemotaxis, ECM composition, and clotting

Clotting factors and associated proteinsFactor V, factor XI, protein S, antithrombin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitorThrombin activation and its regulation, eventual fibrin clot formation

Fibrinolytic factors and associated proteinsPlasminogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, -2 antiplasmin, and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitorPlasmin production and regulation

Proteases and antiproteasesTissue inhibitor of metalloproteases 1-4 (TIMP 1-4), MMP-1, -2, -4, and -9, and -1 antitrypsinRegulation of matrix degradation, regulation of cellular behavior, and so forth

Growth factors, cytokines, and chemokinesTGF- , PDGF, insulin like growth factors (IGF) I and II, FGF, EGF, VEGF, ECGF, KGF, GM-CSF, hepatocyte GF, TNF , RANTES, IL-8, IL-1 , and BMP-2, -4, and -6Chemotaxis, cell proliferation and differentiation, promotion of ECM production, regulation of inflammation, and angiogenesis

Antimicrobial proteinsThrombocidins and kinocidinsBactericidal and fungicidal properties

Membrane glycoproteins IIb 3, v 3, CD-40 ligand, P-selectin, tissue factor, PECAM-1, tissue factor, and CD63Platelet aggregation and adhesion, inflammation, and platelet-leukocyte interactions

LipidsSphingosine-1-phosphate, HETEs, thromboxane B2, prostaglandin F2 , leukotriene B4, and lipoxin A4Inflammation modulation, cell migration and proliferation, and so forth

Basic proteins and othersPlatelet factor 4, -thromboglobulin, endostatins, connective tissue activating peptide III, chondroitin-4 sulfate, albumin, and immunoglobulins G and MRegulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis and angiogenesis, vascular modeling, platelet activation, and so forth