Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 406731, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/406731
Review Article

Topical Delivery of Aceclofenac: Challenges and Promises of Novel Drug Delivery Systems

1Department of Pharmacy, School of Chemical Sciences & Pharmacy, Central University of Rajasthan, Bandarsindri, Ajmer District, Rajasthan 305 801, India
2Division of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 17 February 2014; Revised 3 April 2014; Accepted 4 April 2014; Published 18 June 2014

Academic Editor: Sanyog Jain

Copyright © 2014 Kaisar Raza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. D. Woolf and B. Pfleger, “Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 646–656, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. D. Altman, “The syndrome of osteoarthritis,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 766–767, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Reginster, “The prevalence and burden of arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 3–6, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. M. Jordan, N. K. Arden, M. Doherty et al., “EULAR recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the standing committee for international clinical studies including therapeutic trials (ESCISIT),” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1145–1155, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. A. Moore, M. R. Tramèr, D. Carroll, P. J. Wiffen, and H. J. McQuay, “Quantitive systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 316, no. 7128, pp. 333–338, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Pavelka, “A comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of diclofenac in osteoarthritis: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 163–178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Grau, J. L. Montero, J. Guasch, A. Felipe, E. Carrasco, and S. Juliá, “The pharmacological profile of aceclofenac, a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory and analgesic drug,” Agents and Actions Supplements, vol. 32, pp. 125–129, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. V. Shavi, U. Nayak, R. K. Averineni et al., “Multiparticulate drug delivery system of aceclofenac: development and in vitro studies,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 252–258, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. U. Manu, Nonaqueous Liquid Parenteral Aceclofenac Formulation, Venus Remedies Limited, 2006.
  10. R. N. Brogden and L. R. Wiseman, “Aceclofenac: a review of its pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic potential in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and in pain management,” Drugs, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 113–124, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Legrand, “Aceclofenac in the management of inflammatory pain,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1347–1357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Morros, A. Figueras, D. Capella, and J. Laporte, “Hypersensitivity vasculitis related to aceclofenac,” The British Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 503–504, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. J. G. Buján, G. M. G. Alvarez-Eire, W. Martinez, J. del Pozo, and E. Fonseca, “Photoallergic contact dermatitis from aceclofenac,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 170, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Ludwig, T. Brinkmeier, and P. J. Frosch, “Erythema multiforme exudativum with transition to toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking aceclofenac (Beofenac),” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 128, no. 10, pp. 487–490, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Rojas-Hijazo, M. Garcés, L. Ferrer, A. Lezaun, and C. Colás, “Anaphylactic reaction after aceclofenac intake,” Allergy, vol. 61, no. 4, p. 511, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Gupta, S. D. Cruz, R. Nada, and P. Aggarwal, “Aceclofenac-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with diabetes,” BMJ Case Reports, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Yamazaki, S. Kawai, T. Matsuzaki et al., “Aceclofenac blocks prostaglandin E2 production following its intracellular conversion into cyclooxygenase inhibitors,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 329, no. 2-3, pp. 181–187, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Dannhardt and H. Ulbrich, “In-vitro test system for the evaluation of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors based on a single HPLC run with UV detection using bovine aortic coronary endothelial cells (BAECs),” Inflammation Research, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 262–269, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. González-Alvaro, L. Carmona, F. Díaz-González et al., “Aceclofenac, a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, decreases the expression and function of some adhesion molecules on human neutrophils,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 723–729, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Akimoto, R. Yamazaki, S. Hashimoto, T. Sato, and A. Ito, “4′-Hydroxy aceclofenac suppresses the interleukin-1-induced production of promatrix metalloproteinases and release of sulfated-glycosaminoglycans from rabbit articular chondrocytes,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 401, no. 3, pp. 429–436, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Yamazaki, S. Kawai, T. Matsumoto et al., “Hydrolytic activity is essential for aceclofenac to inhibit cyclooxygenase in rheumatoid synovial cells,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. 676–681, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Henrotin, X. de Leval, M. Mathy-Hartet et al., “In vitro effects of aceclofenac and its metabolites on the production by chondrocytes of inflammatory mediators,” Inflammation Research, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 391–399, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Maneiro, M. J. López-Armada, J. L. Fernández-Sueiro, B. Lema, F. Galdo, and F. J. Blanco, “Aceclofenac increases the synthesis of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and decreases the production of nitric oxide in human articular chondrocytes,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2692–2699, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. P. Riley, M. Cox, R. L. Harrall, S. Clements, and B. L. Hazleman, “Inhibition of tendon cell proliferation and matrix glycosaminoglycan synthesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in vitro,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 224–228, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Pareek and N. Chandurkar, “Comparison of gastrointestinal safety and tolerability of aceclofenac with diclofenac: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study in patients with knee osteoarthritis,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 849–859, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Pareek, N. Chandurkar, A. Gupta et al., “Efficacy and safety of aceclofenac-CR and aceclofenac in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a 6-week, comparative, randomized, multicentric, double-blind study,” Journal of Pain, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 546–553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Hooper, T. J. Brown, R. A. Elliott, K. Payne, C. Roberts, and D. Symmons, “The effectiveness of five strategies for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: systematic review,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7472, pp. 948–952, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. A. Heyneman, C. Lawless-Liday, and G. C. Wall, “Oral versus topical NSAIDs in rheumatic diseases: a comparison,” Drugs, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 555–574, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Soni, C. Nagda, T. Gandhi, and N. P. Chotai, “Development of discriminating method for dissolution of aceclofenac marketed formulations,” Dissolution Technologies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 31–35, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. A. Arslan and F. A. Tirnaksiz, “A nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug: aceclofenac,” FABA Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 105–118, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. R. Bhinge, R. V. Kumar, and V. R. Sinha, “A simple and sensitive stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method for the determination of aceclofenac,” Journal of Chromatographic Science, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 440–444, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Y. Hasan, M. Abdel-Elkawy, B. E. Elzeany, and N. E. Wagieh, “Stability indicating methods for the determination of aceclofenac,” Il Farmaco, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. R. Goud, K. Suresh, and A. Nangia, “Solubility and stability advantage of aceclofenac salts,” Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1590–1601, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. E. Ward, E. M. Veys, J. M. Bowdler, and J. Roma, “Comparison of aceclofenac with diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 656–662, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. O. Katare, K. Raza, B. Singh, and S. Dogra, “Novel drug delivery systems in topical treatment of psoriasis: rigors and vigors,” Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 612–621, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Raza, B. Singh, S. Lohan et al., “Nano-lipoidal carriers of tretinoin with enhanced percutaneous absorption, photostability, biocompatibility and anti-psoriatic activity,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 456, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. H. Guy, “Current status and future prospects of transdermal drug delivery,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1765–1769, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Okyar, M. Nuriyev, A. Yildiz, Z. Pala-Kara, N. Ozturk, and E. Kaptan, “The effect of terpenes on percutaneous absorption of tiaprofenic acid gel,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1781–1788, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. W. Barry, “Novel mechanisms and devices to enable successful transdermal drug delivery,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 101–114, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. Raza, O. P. Katare, A. Setia, A. Bhatia, and B. Singh, “Improved therapeutic performance of dithranol against psoriasis employing systematically optimized nanoemulsomes,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 225–236, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Bhatia, B. Singh, S. Wadhwa, K. Raza, and O. P. Katare, “Novel phospholipid-based topical formulations of tamoxifen: evaluation for antipsoriatic activity using mouse-tail model,” Pharmaceutical Development Technology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 160–163, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Raza, B. Singh, N. Singla, P. Negi, P. Singal, and O. P. Katare, “Nano-lipoidal carriers of isotretinoin with anti-aging potential: formulation, characterization and biochemical evaluation,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 435–442, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Bhatia, B. Singh, K. Raza, S. Wadhwa, and O. P. Katare, “Tamoxifen-loaded lecithin organogel (LO) for topical application: development, optimization and characterization,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 444, no. 1-2, pp. 47–59, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Raza, B. Singh, P. Singal, S. Wadhwa, and O. P. Katare, “Systematically optimized biocompatible isotretinoin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for topical treatment of acne,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 105, pp. 67–74, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Raza, B. Singh, S. Singla et al., “Nanocolloidal carriers of isotretinoin: antimicrobial activity against propionibacterium acnes and dermatokinetic modeling,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1958–1963, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Sharma, S. Lohan, and R. S. Murthy, “Formulation and characterization of intranasal mucoadhesive nanoparticulates and thermo-reversible gel of levodopa for brain delivery,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. J. Hurler, K. K. Sorensen, A. Fallarero, P. Vuorela, and N. Skalko-Basnet, “Liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system with mupirocin: in vitro antibiofilm studies and in vivo evaluation in mice burn model,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 498485, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. S. Ghanbarzadeh and S. Arami, “Enhanced transdermal delivery of diclofenac sodium via conventional liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 616810, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Bhatia, B. Singh, K. Raza, A. Shukla, B. Amarji, and O. P. Katare, “Tamoxifen-loaded novel liposomal formulations: evaluation of anticancer activity on DMBA-TPA induced mouse skin carcinogenesis,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 544–550, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Shishu, Kamalpreet, and M. Maheshwari, “Development and evaluation of novel microemulsion based oral formulations of 5-fluorouracil using non-everted rat intestine sac model,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 294–300, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Raza, P. Negi, S. Takyar, A. Shukla, B. Amarji, and O. P. Katare, “Novel dithranol phospholipid microemulsion for topical application: development, characterization and percutaneous absorption studies,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 190–199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Raza, B. Singh, A. Mahajan, P. Negi, A. Bhatia, and O. P. Katare, “Design and evaluation of flexible membrane vesicles (FMVs) for enhanced topical delivery of capsaicin,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 293–302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Shukla, B. Singh, and O. P. Katare, “Significant systemic and mucosal immune response induced on oral delivery of diphtheria toxoid using nano-bilosomes,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 820–827, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Jain, A. Agarwal, S. Majumder et al., “Mannosylated solid lipid nanoparticles as vectors for site-specific delivery of an anti-cancer drug,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 359–367, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Morganti, E. Ruocco, R. Wolf, and V. Ruocco, “Percutaneous absorption and delivery systems,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 489–501, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Desai, R. R. Patlolla, and M. Singh, “Interaction of nanoparticles and cell-penetrating peptides with skin for transdermal drug delivery,” Molecular Membrane Biology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 247–259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Onoue, S. Yamada, and H. K. Chan, “Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp. 1025–1037, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  58. L. B. Lopes, “Overcoming the cutaneous barrier with microemulsions,” Pharmaceutics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 52–77, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  59. D. Fairhurst and R. W. Lee, “Observations on nanotechnology-based drug delivery approaches: translating nanotechnology from bench to pharmaceutical market: barriers, success, and promises,” The American Pharmaceutical Review, Article ID 127536, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  60. S. Koudelka and J. Turánek, “Liposomal paclitaxel formulations,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 322–334, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. V. Clemons, J. Capilla, R. A. Sobel, M. Martinez, A. Tong, and D. A. Stevens, “Comparative efficacies of lipid-complexed amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B against coccidioidal meningitis in rabbits,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1858–1862, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. K. Singh and S. S. Narsipur, “Cyclosporine: a commentary on brand versus generic formulation exchange,” Journal of Transplantation, vol. 2011, Article ID 480642, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Pardeike, A. Hommoss, and R. H. Müller, “Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 366, no. 1-2, pp. 170–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Kim, “Liposomes as carriers of cancer chemotherapy: current status and future prospects,” Drugs, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 618–638, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. J. Booser and G. N. Hortobagyi, “Anthracycline antibiotics in cancer therapy: focus on drug resistance,” Drugs, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 223–258, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Barber and P. Shek, “Liposomes as a topical ocular drug delivery system,” in Pharmaceutical Particulate Carriers, A. Rolland, Ed., pp. 1–20, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. Nasr, S. Mansour, N. D. Mortada, and A. A. Elshamy, “Vesicular aceclofenac systems: a comparative study between liposomes and niosomes,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 499–512, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. B. Godin and E. Touitou, “Ethosomes: new prospects in transdermal delivery,” Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 63–102, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Lewis and V. Dave, “Aceclofenac ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering (ICBPE '09), pp. 1–4, Singapore, December 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. V. Dave, D. Kumar, S. Lewis, and S. Paliwal, “Ethosome for enhanced transdermal drug delivery of aceclofenac,” International Journal of Drug Delivery, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. A. K. Barupal, V. Gupta, and S. Ramteke, “Preparation and characterization of ethosomes for topical delivery of aceclofenac,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 582–586, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. K. Garg, L. M. Negi, and M. Chauhan, “Gel containing ethosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of aceclofenac,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 102–108, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Shafiq, F. Shakeel, S. Talegaonkar, F. J. Ahmad, R. K. Khar, and M. Ali, “Design and development of oral oil in water ramipril nanoemulsion formulation: in vitro and in vivo assessment,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 28–44, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. H. Yang, Y. I. Kim, and K. M. Kim, “Preparation and evaluation of aceclofenac microemulsion for transdermal delivery system,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 534–540, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Lee, Y. Lee, J. Kim, M. Yoon, and Y. W. Choi, “Formulation of microemulsion systems for transdermal delivery of aceclofenac,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1097–1102, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. R. Shah, C. S. Magdum, S. S. Patil, and N. S. Niakwade, “Preparation and evaluation of aceclofenac topical microemulsion,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5–11, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. F. Shakeel, S. Baboota, A. Ahuja, J. Ali, M. Aqil, and S. Shafiq, “Nanoemulsions as vehicles for transdermal delivery of aceclofenac,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 191–199, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. Dasgupta, S. Dey, S. Choudhury, and B. Mazumder, “Topical delivery of aceclofenac as nanoemulsion comprising excipients having optimum emulsification capabilities: preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 411–420, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. T. Yoshioka, B. B. Sternberg, and A. T. Florence, “Preparation and properties of vesicles (niosomes) of sorbitan monoesters (Span 20, 40, 60 and 80) and a sorbitan triester (Span 85),” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B. Vora, A. J. Khopade, and N. K. Jain, “Proniosome based transdermal delivery of levonorgestrel for effective contraception,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 149–165, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. B. Solanki, J. R. Parikh, R. H. Parikh, and M. R. Patel, “Evaluation of different compositions of niosomes to optimize aceclofenac transdermal delivery,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 87–95, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. Solanki, J. Parikh, and R. Parikh, “Preparation, characterization, optimization, and stability studies of aceclofenac proniosomes,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 237–246, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Sahoo, N. Kumar, C. Bhattacharya et al., “Organogels: properties and applications in drug delivery,” Designed Monomers and Polymers, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 95–108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. I. M. Shaikh, S. L. Jadhav, K. R. Jadhav, V. J. Kadam, and S. S. Pisal, “Aceclofenac organogels: in vitro and in vivo characterization,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. I. M. Shaikh, K. R. Jadhav, P. S. Gide, V. J. Kadam, and S. S. Pisal, “Topical delivery of aceclofenac from lecithin organogels: preformulation study,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 417–427, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. R. Kamble, P. Udapurkar, K. R. Biyani, P. D. Nakhat, and P. G. Yeole, “Development and characterisation of pluronic lecithin organogels as a topical delivery system for aceclofenac,” Inventi Impact: NDDS, vol. 2012, no. 1, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  87. M. Nasr, S. Mansour, N. D. Mortada, and A. A. El Shamy, “Lipospheres as carriers for topical delivery of aceclofenac: preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 154–162, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. Patel, S. Dasgupta, S. Dey, Y. R. Ramani, S. Ray, and B. Mazumder, “Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC)-based gel for the topical delivery of aceclofenac: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation,” Scientia Pharmaceutica, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 749–764, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. V. Chawla and S. A. Saraf, “Rheological studies on solid lipid nanoparticle based carbopol gels of aceclofenac,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 92, pp. 293–298, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus