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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 407518, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/407518
Review Article

The Characteristics of Thrombin in Osteoarthritic Pathogenesis and Treatment

1Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung, Taiwan
2Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan
3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yun-Lin County, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
5Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
6Department of Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Received 9 July 2014; Accepted 1 September 2014; Published 16 September 2014

Academic Editor: Wen-Bin Wu

Copyright © 2014 Pei-Yu Chou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a mechanical abnormality associated with degradation of joints. It is characterized by chronic, progressive degeneration of articular cartilage, abnormalities of bone, and synovial change. The most common symptom of OA is local inflammation resulting from exogenous stress or endogenous abnormal cytokines. Additionally, OA is associated with local and/or systemic activation of coagulation and anticoagulation pathways. Thrombin plays an important role in the stimulation of fibrin deposition and the proinflammatory processes in OA. Thrombin mediates hemostatic and inflammatory responses and guides the immune response to tissue damage. Thrombin activates intracellular signaling pathways by interacting with transmembrane domain G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), known as protease-activated receptors (PARs). In pathogenic mechanisms, PARs have been implicated in the development of acute and chronic inflammatory responses in OA. Therefore, discovery of thrombin signaling pathways would help us to understand the mechanism of OA pathogenesis and lead us to develop therapeutic drugs in the future.