BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Characteristics of Thrombin in Osteoarthritic Pathogenesis and Treatment

Table 1

Thrombin as an inflammatory-related molecule regulates signaling in OA.

ReceptorRegulationPathwayFunctionReference

PAR-1CCL2PKC/c-SRC/EGFR/MEK/ERK/AP-1Monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells activation[47, 48]
PAR-1/-2IL-1, TNF-p38/p42/44MMP expression[65]
PAR-1/-3HO-1PKCδ/c-SRC/Nrf-2Synovial fibroblasts inflammatory[7072]
PAR-1/-3MMP-13PKCδ/c-SRC/EGFR/pI3K/AKT/AP-1Cartilage destruction[59, 60]
PAR-1COX-2?IL-6, CTGF, FGF1/2, VEGF, Tnc expression [5154]

PAR: protease-activated receptor; CCL2: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2; IL: interleukin; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; MMP: matrix metalloproteinase; FGF-1/-2: fibroblast growth factor-1/-2; CTGF: connective tissue growth factor; TnC: tenascin C; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2.