BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

The Characteristics of Thrombin in Osteoarthritic Pathogenesis and Treatment

Table 2

Thrombin as a therapeutic target in OA.

DrugTargetReference

Thrombin antagonistsVorapaxar (SCH530348)PAR1 antagonist[81, 82]
Atopaxar (E5555)PAR1 antagonist[81, 82]
HirudinCleave fibrinogen and PAR-1[74, 8385]

Herbal medicinesCurcuminoidsAnti-inflammatory [88, 89]
Chondrocytes protection [88]
-Ecdysterone (Ecd)Bax and p53 reduction [90]
Increase Bcl-xL expression,[90]
Inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation, [90]
IκBα degradation, MMP-3, [90]
MMP-9, and COX-2 expression[90]
Ceiba pentandra (Malvaceae/Bombacoideae)Coagulation intrinsic pathway [91]
Prolong clotting time[91]
Quassia africana (Simaroubaceae/C. pentandra)Coagulation intrinsic pathway [91]
Prolong clotting time[91]