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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 415651, 8 pages
Research Article

Fibrinogen Alpha Chain Precursor and Apolipoprotein A-I in Urine as Biomarkers for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis: A Proteomics Study

1Department of Urological Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China
2Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Received 17 February 2014; Revised 8 April 2014; Accepted 4 July 2014; Published 23 July 2014

Academic Editor: Tomohito Gohda

Copyright © 2014 Wei Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is the most common urological disease, but noninvasive and convenient methods of diagnosis are rarely available. Objective. The present study aimed to identify potential urine biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Methodology. Urine samples from 72 patients with CaOx nephrolithiasis and 30 healthy controls were collected and proteomics analysis was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results. Thirteen proteins/peptides displayed statistically significant differences. The peptides of m/z 1207.23 and 2773.86 were selected by the genetic algorithm (GA) to build a possible diagnostic model. The area under the curve of m/z 1207.23 and 2773.86 was 0.936 and 0.987, respectively. The diagnostic model in distinguishing patients and healthy subjects showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The peak at m/z 2773.86 was identified as fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) with the sequence G.EGDFLAEGGGVR.G, and the peak at m/z 2773.86 was identified as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with the sequence L.PVLESFKVSFLSALEEYTKKLNTQ. Conclusion. The study results strongly suggested that urinary FGA and apoA-I are highly sensitive and specific biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of CaOx nephrolithiasis.