Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 436029, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/436029
Review Article

Regenerative Repair of Damaged Meniscus with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

1Stems Medical Clinic, 32-3 Chungdam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-950, Republic of Korea
2National Leading Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University, 116 Myongjiro, Gyeonggido, Yongin 449-728, Republic of Korea

Received 28 August 2013; Revised 4 December 2013; Accepted 23 December 2013; Published 30 January 2014

Academic Editor: Antonio Salgado

Copyright © 2014 Jaewoo Pak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Englund, A. Guermazi, D. Gale et al., “Incidental meniscal findings on knee MRI in middle-aged and elderly persons,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 11, pp. 1108–1115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. Magee and D. Williams, “3.0-T MRI of meniscal tears,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 371–375, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. E. DeHaven, “Decision-making factors in the treatment of meniscus lesions,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 252, pp. 49–54, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. P. Newman, A. U. Daniels, and R. T. Burks, “Principles and decision making in meniscal surgery,” Arthroscopy, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 33–51, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. U. Jorgensen, S. Sonne-Holm, F. Lauridsen, and A. Rosenklint, “Long-term follow-up of meniscectomy in athletes. A prospective longitudinal study,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 80–83, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Roos, M. Lauren, T. Adalberth, E. M. Roos, K. Jonsson, and L. S. Lohmander, “Knee osteoarthritis after meniscectomy: prevalence of radiographic changes after twenty-one years, compared with matched controls,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 687–693, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Englund, E. M. Roos, and L. S. Lohmander, “Impact of type of meniscal tear on radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a sixteen-year followup of meniscectomy with matched controls,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 2178–2187, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. A. Petty and J. H. Lubowitz, “Does arthroscopic partial meniscectomy result in knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review with a minimum of 8 years' follow-up,” Arthroscopy, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 419–424, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. J. Centeno, D. Busse, J. Kisiday, C. Keohan, M. Freeman, and D. Karli, “Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells,” Pain Physician, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 343–353, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Pak, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “A novel biological approach to treat chondromalacia patellae,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e64569, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Pak, “Regeneration of human bones in hip osteonecrosis and human cartilage in knee osteoarthritis with autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells: a case series,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol. 5, article 296, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Pak, “Autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce persistent bone-like tissue in osteonecrotic femoral heads,” Pain Physician, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 75–85, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA), “Cell therapy: Rules and Regulations,” KFDA, Chapter 2, Section 14, pp. 4, 2009.
  14. A. J. Friedenstein, K. V. Petrakova, A. I. Kurolesova, and G. P. Frolova, “Heterotopic of bone marrow. Analysis of precursor cells for osteogenic and hematopoietic tissues,” Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 230–247, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. F. Pittenger, A. M. Mackay, S. C. Beck et al., “Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5411, pp. 143–147, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Dominici, K. Le Blanc, I. Mueller et al., “Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement,” Cytotherapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 315–317, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. da Silva Meirelles, P. C. Chagastelles, and N. B. Nardi, “Mesenchymal stem cells reside in virtually all post-natal organs and tissues,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 2204–2213, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. P. Luyten, “Mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 599–603, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Magne, C. Vinatier, M. Julien, P. Weiss, and J. Guicheux, “Mesenchymal stem cell therapy to rebuild cartilage,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 519–526, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. M. Murphy, D. J. Fink, E. B. Hunziker, and F. P. Barry, “Stem cell therapy in a caprine model of osteoarthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 3464–3474, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. J. Szilvassy, “The biology of hematopoietic stem cells,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 446–460, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, H. Mizuno et al., “Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 211–228, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y.-D. C. Halvorsen, D. Franklin, A. L. Bond et al., “Extracellular matrix mineralization and osteoblast gene expression by human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 729–741, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian et al., “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4279–4295, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Brzoska, H. Geiger, S. Gauer, and P. Baer, “Epithelial differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 330, no. 1, pp. 142–150, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Du, D. S. Roh, M. L. Funderburgh et al., “Adipose-derived stem cells differentiate to keratocytes in vitro,” Molecular Vision, vol. 16, pp. 2680–2689, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. U. Vossmerbaeumer, S. Ohnesorge, S. Kuehl et al., “Retinal pigment epithelial phenotype induced in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells,” Cytotherapy, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 177–188, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Ferro, R. Spelat, G. Falini et al., “Adipose tissue-derived stem cell in vitro differentiation in a three-dimensional dental bud structure,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 178, no. 5, pp. 2299–2310, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Li, Q. Han, X. Yan, L. Liao, and R. C. Zhao, “Not a process of simple vicariousness, the differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to renal tubular epithelial cells plays an important role in acute kidney injury repairing,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1267–1275, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Seo, S. Y. Suh, Y. C. Bae, and J. S. Jung, “Differentiation of human adipose stromal cells into hepatic lineage in vitro and in vivo,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 328, no. 1, pp. 258–264, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Banas, T. Teratani, Y. Yamamoto et al., “Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a source of human hepatocytes,” Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 219–228, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Aurich, M. Sgodda, P. Kaltwaßer et al., “Hepatocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue in vitro promotes hepatic integration in vivo,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 570–581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. H. Kim, C. M. Je, J. Y. Sin, and J. S. Jung, “Effect of partial hepatectomy on in vivo engraftment after intravenous administration of human adipose tissue stromal cells in mouse,” Microsurgery, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 424–431, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Banas, T. Teratani, Y. Yamamoto et al., “Rapid hepatic fate specification of adipose-derived stem cells and their therapeutic potential for liver failure,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. Chandra, S. G, S. Phadnis, P. D. Nair, and R. R. Bhonde, “Generation of pancreatic hormone-expressing islet-like cell aggregates from murine adipose tissue-derived stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1941–1953, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. Chandra, S. G, S. Muthyala et al., “Islet-like cell aggregates generated from human adipose tissue derived stem cells ameliorate experimental diabetes in mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e20615, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Lin, G. Wang, G. Liu et al., “Treatment of type 1 diabetes with adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1399–1406, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Mizuno, T. Muneta, T. Morito et al., “Exogenous synovial stem cells adhere to defect of meniscus and differentiate into cartilage cells,” Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 101–111, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. Ong, M. Chimutengwende-Gordon, and W. Khan, “Stem cell therapy for knee ligament, articular cartilage and meniscal injuries,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 422–428, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Horie, I. Sekiya, T. Muneta et al., “Intra-articular injected synovial stem cells differentiate into meniscal cells directly and promote meniscal regeneration without mobilization to distant organs in rat massive meniscal defect,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 878–887, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Zellner, K. Hierl, M. Mueller et al., “Stem cell-based tissue-engineering for treatment of meniscal tears in the avascular zone,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 1133–1142, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. Á. Ruiz-Ibán, J. Díaz-Heredia, I. García-Gómez, F. Gonzalez-Lizán, E. Elías-Martín, and V. Abraira, “The effect of the addition of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to a meniscal repair in the avascular zone: an experimental study in rabbits,” Arthroscopy, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1688–1696, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  43. M. B. Coelho, J. M. Cabral, and J. M. Karp, “Intraoperative stem cell therapy,” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 325–349, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. J. Salgado, R. L. Reis, N. J. Sousa, and J. M. Gimble, “Adipose tissue derived stem cells secretome: soluble factors and their roles in regenerative medicine,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Cai, B. H. Johnstone, T. G. Cook et al., “IFATS collection: human adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce angiogenesis and nerve sprouting following myocardial infarction, in conjunction with potent preservation of cardiac function,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 230–237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. Miyahara, N. Nagaya, M. Kataoka et al., “Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 459–465, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Nakagami, K. Maeda, R. Morishita et al., “Novel autologous cell therapy in ischemic limb disease through growth factor secretion by cultured adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2542–2547, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Cai, B. H. Johnstone, T. G. Cook et al., “Suppression of hepatocyte growth factor production impairs the ability of adipose-derived stem cells to promote ischemic tissue revascularization,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3234–3243, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J.-M. Kim, S.-T. Lee, K. Chu et al., “Systemic transplantation of human adipose stem cells attenuated cerebral inflammation and degeneration in a hemorrhagic stroke model,” Brain Research, vol. 1183, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. M. Garcia, T. M. Fandel, G. Lin et al., “Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the obese type 2 diabetic ZDF rat with adipose tissue-derived stem cells,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 89–98, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y.-C. Huang, H. Ning, A. W. Shindel et al., “The effect of intracavernous injection of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on hyperlipidemia-associated erectile dysfunction in a rat model,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1391–1400, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. Puissant, C. Barreau, P. Bourin et al., “Immunomodulatory effect of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 118–129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. Yañez, M. L. Lamana, J. García-Castro, I. Colmenero, M. Ramírez, and J. A. Bueren, “Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells have in vivo immunosuppressive properties applicable for the control of the graft-versus-host disease,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2582–2591, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. Niemeyer, M. Kornacker, A. Mehlhorn et al., “Comparison of immunological properties of bone marrow stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stem cells before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 111–121, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Cui, Y. Shuo, W. Liu, N. Li, W. Zhang, and Y. Cao, “Expanded adipose-derived stem cells suppress mixed lymphocyte reaction by secretion of prostaglandin E2,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1185–1195, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. O. Delarosa, E. Lombardo, A. Beraza et al., “Requirement of IFN-γ-mediated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the modulation of lymphocyte proliferation by human adipose-derived stem cells,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 2795–2806, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Yañez, A. Oviedo, M. Aldea, J. A. Bueren, and M. L. Lamana, “Prostaglandin E2 plays a key role in the immunosuppressive properties of adipose and bone marrow tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 316, no. 19, pp. 3109–3123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Najar, G. Raicevic, H. I. Boufker et al., “Adipose-tissue-derived and Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells suppress lymphocyte responses by secreting leukemia inhibitory factor,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 3537–3546, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. I. Caplan and J. E. Dennis, “Mesenchymal stem cells as trophic mediators,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 1076–1084, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Zellner, M. Mueller, A. Berner et al., “Role of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering of meniscus,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1150–1161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. E. Marx, “Platelet-rich plasma: evidence to support its use,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 489–496, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. L. Eppley, W. S. Pietrzak, and M. Blanton, “Platelet-rich plasma: a review of biology and applications in plastic surgery,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 147e–159e, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Mishra and T. Pavelko, “Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1774–1778, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. Aspenberg and O. Virchenko, “Platelet concentrate injection improves Achilles tendon repair in rats,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 93–99, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. Anitua, I. Andia, B. Ardanza, P. Nurden, and A. T. Nurden, “Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 4–15, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Z. Hu, S. A. F. Peel, S. K. C. Ho, G. K. B. Sándor, and C. M. L. Clokie, “Platelet-rich plasma induces mRNA expression of VEGF and PDGF in rat bone marrow stromal cell differentiation,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Zhang and J. H.-C. Wang, “Platelet-rich plasma releasate promotes differentiation of tendon stem cells into active tenocytes,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2477–2486, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. N. Zhao, W. F. Liu, and Z. T. Zhang, “Effect of platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation and osteogenic activity of pulp stem cells,” Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 177–182, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  69. K. Ishida, R. Kuroda, M. Miwa et al., “The regenerative effects of platelet-rich plasma on meniscal cells in vitro and its in vivo application with biodegradable gelatin hydrogel,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1103–1112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. L. Braun, A. S. Wasterlain, and J. L. Dragoo, “The use of PRP in ligament and meniscal healing,” Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 206–212, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  71. P. Cassiede, J. E. Dennis, F. Ma, and A. I. Caplan, “Osteochondrogenic potential of marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells exposed to TGF-β1 or PDGF-BB as assayed in vivo and in vitro,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1264–1273, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. D. R. Carter, G. S. Beaupré, N. J. Giori, and J. A. Helms, “Mechanobiology of skeletal regeneration,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 355, supplement, pp. S41–S55, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. P. Bruder, D. J. Fink, and A. I. Caplan, “Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regeneration therapy,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 283–294, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. H. Cui, K. Park, S. R. Park, and B.-H. Min, “Effects of low-intensity ultrasound on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells embedded in polyglycolic acid: an in vivo study,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 75–82, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. V. Risbud, T. J. Albert, A. Guttapalli et al., “Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype in vitro: implications for cell-based transplantation therapy,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2627–2632, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. Bosnakovski, M. Mizuno, G. Kim, S. Takagi, M. Okumura, and T. Fujinaga, “Chondrogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in different hydrogels: influence of collagen type II extracellular matrix on MSC chondrogenesis,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1152–1163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Scutt and P. Bertram, “Basic fibroblast growth factor in the presence of dexamethasone stimulates colony formation, expansion, and osteoblastic differentiation by rat bone marrow stromal cells,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. Y. Zhang, C. Wang, W. Liao et al., “In vitro chondrogenic phenotype differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 275–278, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. I.-H. Song, A. I. Caplan, and J. E. Dennis, “In vitro dexamethasone pretreatment enhances bone formation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vivo,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 916–921, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. F. Langenbach and J. R. Handschel, “On the use of dexamethasone-loaded liposomes to induce the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. M. J. D. Childs and S. R. Piva, “Psychometric properties of the functional rating index in patients with low back pain,” European Spine Journal, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1008–1012, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. D. D. Price, P. A. McGrath, A. Rafii, and B. Buckingham, “The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain,” Pain, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. Englund and L. S. Lohmander, “Risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis fifteen to twenty-two years after meniscectomy,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2811–2819, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. T. Stein, A. P. Mehling, F. Welsch, R. von Eisenhart-Rothe, and A. Jäger, “Long-term outcome after arthroscopic meniscal repair versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1542–1548, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Pak, J.-J. Chang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints,” Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 14, article 337, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  86. L. Aust, B. Devlin, S. J. Foster et al., “Yield of human adipose-derived adult stem cells from liposuction aspirates,” Cytotherapy, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus