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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 436123, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/436123
Review Article

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prostatic Diseases

1Photocatalyst Group, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, 3-25-13 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kanagawa, Kawasaki 210-0821, Japan
2Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Kanagawa, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan

Received 15 December 2013; Accepted 22 April 2014; Published 12 May 2014

Academic Editor: Paul Crispen

Copyright © 2014 Hitoshi Ishiguro and Takashi Kawahara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostatic diseases are characterized by increased activity of cytokines, growth factors, and cyclooxygenases- (COX-) 1 and 2. Activation of COX-1 and COX-2 results in increased levels of prostaglandins and the induction of angiogenic, antiapoptotic and inflammatory processes. Inhibition of COX enzymes by members of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class of drugs decreases prostaglandin production, and exerts a variety of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antinociceptive effects. While numerous in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have shown that NSAIDs inhibit the risk and progression of prostatic diseases, the relationship between NSAIDs and such diseases remains controversial. Here we review the literature in this area, critically analyzing the benefits and caveats associated with the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of prostatic diseases.