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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 452175, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/452175
Research Article

Differential Expression of Osteo-Modulatory Molecules in Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Response to Modified Titanium Surfaces

1Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea

Received 5 March 2014; Accepted 11 April 2014; Published 25 June 2014

Academic Editor: Seong-Hun Kim (Sunny)

Copyright © 2014 So Yeon Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study assessed differential gene expression of signaling molecules involved in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) subjected to different titanium (Ti) surface types. PDLSCs were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and four types of Ti discs (PT, SLA, hydrophilic PT (pmodPT), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA)) with no osteoinductive factor and then osteogenic activity, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of runt-related gene 2, osterix, FOSB, FRA1, and protein levels of osteopontin and collagen type IA, were examined. The highest osteogenic activity appeared in PDLSCs cultured on SLA, compared with the TCPS and other Ti surfaces. The role of surface properties in affecting signaling molecules to modulate PDLSC behavior was determined by examining the regulation of Wnt pathways. mRNA expression of the canonical Wnt signaling molecules, Wnt3a and β-catenin, was higher on SLA and modSLA than on smooth surfaces, but gene expression of the calcium-dependent Wnt signaling molecules Wnt5a, calmodulin, and NFATc1 was increased significantly on PT and pmodPT. Moreover, integrin α2/β1, sonic hedgehog, and Notch signaling molecules were affected differently by each surface modification. In conclusion, surface roughness and hydrophilicity can affect differential Wnt pathways and signaling molecules, targeting the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.