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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 467465, 10 pages
Research Article

Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts

1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
2James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
4Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Delia Baxter II, Room 304B, 580 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA

Received 1 March 2014; Accepted 22 April 2014; Published 14 May 2014

Academic Editor: Davor Zeljezic

Copyright © 2014 Maryam Zahin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Characteristics of Tester Strains: All the Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains used in the Ames test carry a defective (mutant) gene that prevents them from synthesizing the essential amino acid histidine. The mutant colonies, which can make histidine are called "revertants". Revertants are identified as colonies that grow in low levels of histidine. Frameshift, transition and base-pair substitution defects are represented to identify the types. The presence of the uvrA/B mutation makes the strains more sensitive to the test articles that induce damage in this manner. The uvrA/B mutation is part of a deletion mutation extending into a gene for biotin synthesis; therefore, the biotin requirement is a result of the deletion of this region. The uvrA/B mutation is indicated by sensitivity to UV light. The rfa mutation changes the properties of the bacterial cell wall and results in the partial loss of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) barrier increasing permeability of cells to certain types of chemicals. The rfa mutation is indicated by sensitivity to crystal violet. The R factor plasmid (pKM101) makes the strains more responsive to a variety of mutagens. This plasmid carries an ampicillin resistance gene. The pAQ1 plasmid carries a tetracycline resistance gene.

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