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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 472017, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/472017
Research Article

Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
3Department of Nutrition, Diabetes and Metabolism, Magister of Nutrition Program, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
4Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
5Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
6Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
8School of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Received 10 April 2014; Accepted 19 May 2014; Published 15 June 2014

Academic Editor: Luis Sobrevia

Copyright © 2014 Francisco Mardones et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR) was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years) were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW) and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40) at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999). The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL) and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67) at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm). A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.