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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 482438, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/482438
Review Article

Biological Pathways and Potential Targets for Prevention and Therapy of Chronic Allograft Nephropathy

Division of Renal Transplantation, Sheffield Kidney Institute, Northern General Hospital, Herries Road, Sheffield S5 7AU, UK

Received 12 February 2014; Accepted 4 May 2014; Published 27 May 2014

Academic Editor: Paul J. Higgins

Copyright © 2014 Badri Man Shrestha and John Haylor. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Renal transplantation (RT) is the best option for patients with end-stage renal disease, but the half-life is limited to a decade due to progressive deterioration of renal function and transplant failure from chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), which is the leading cause of transplant loss. Extensive research has been done to understand the pathogenesis, the biological pathways of fibrogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of CAN. Despite the advancements in the immunosuppressive agents and patient care, CAN continues to remain an unresolved problem in renal transplantation. The aim of this paper is to undertake a comprehensive review of the literature on the pathogenesis, biological pathways of RT fibrogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and therapy of CAN.