Table 1: Risk factors implicated in CAN.

Immunological risk factors Nonimmunological risk factors

Acute rejection episodes
Suboptimal immunosuppression
Subclinical rejections
Anti-donor antibodies
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury
Brain death
Infection (cytomegalovirus and BK virus)
CNI toxicity
Donor factors: age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, gender, and reduced renal mass
Recipient factors: race, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia