Table 2: Effect of black coffee (BC) and green coffee (GC) on physiological markers, total polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in 24-hour urine samples (mean ± SEM).

Study populationBaselineBCBaseline versus BC (95% CI)GCBaseline versus GC (95% CI)

SBP (mmHg) −0.81 to 5.27113.5 ± 3.111.2 to 5.5
DBP (mmHg) 0.77 to 5.2071.2 ± 2.231.4 to 4.8
PWV (m/sec) −0.04 to 0.446.29 ± 0.3040.2 to 0.5
Total polyphenols (mgGAE/day) −175 to 27547.78 ± 36.4−156 to 106
FRAP (mMFeII/day) −3.5 to 0.47.21 ± 3.33−1.7 to 2.5
Energy intake (kcal) −328 to 1641853 ± 29−245 to 113
Sodium intake (mg) −429 to 675 2490 ± 277−268 to 719
Potassium intake (mg) −869 to −11823161 ± 276−933 to 233

BC: black coffee; GC: green coffee; SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure; PWV: pulse wave velocity; CI: 95% confidence interval; significance expressed as ; 2-tail paired -test; 1baseline versus GC, ; 2baseline versus BC, ; 3baseline versus GC, ; 4baseline versus GC, .