Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 482968, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/482968
Review Article

The Impact of Uterine Radiation on Subsequent Fertility and Pregnancy Outcomes

1Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Melbourne and the Royal Women’s Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
2Reproductive Services, Royal Women’s Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
3Melbourne IVF, East Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia
4Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia

Received 28 April 2014; Accepted 19 July 2014; Published 6 August 2014

Academic Editor: Shyh-An Yeh

Copyright © 2014 Wan Tinn Teh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Cancer Society, Global Cancer Facts & Figures, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2nd edition, 2011.
  2. N. Howlader, A. M. Noone, M. Krapcho et al., Eds., SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations, Based on November 2011 SEER Data Submission), http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/.
  3. J. S. Lee, L. R. Schver, A. H. Partridge et al., “American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 2917–2931, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. R. J. Kurman and H. J. Norris, “Endometrial neoplasia: hyperplasia and carcinoma,” in Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, A. Blaustein, Ed., pp. 345–347, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  5. W. H. B. Wallace, S. M. Shalet, E. C. Crowne, P. H. Morris-Jones, and H. R. Gattamaneni, “Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood: natural history and prognosis,” Clinical Oncology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 75–79, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. E. Huang, “Assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary function in women after external head irradiation,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 623–627, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. H. Partridge, S. Gelber, J. Peppercorn et al., “Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 20, pp. 4174–4183, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. R. Schover, L. A. Rybicki, B. A. Martin, and K. A. Bringelsen, “Having children after cancer: a pilot survey of survivor's attitudes and experiences,” Cancer, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 697–709, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  9. V. J. Davis, “Female gamete preservation,” Cancer, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 1690–1694, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Gray, “The uterus,” in Anatomy of the Human Body, W. H. Lewis, Ed., Bartleby.com, New York, NY, USA, 20th edition, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. A. Marshall and J. M. Tanner, “Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 44, no. 235, pp. 291–303, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Holm, E. M. Laursen, V. Brocks, and J. Müller, “Pubertal maturation of the internal genitalia: an ultrasound evaluation of 166 healthy girls,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 175–181, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Mosfeldt Laursen, K. Holm, V. Brocks, M. Jarden, and J. Müller, “Doppler assessment of flow velocity in the uterine artery during pubertal maturation,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 341–345, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Arrive, Y. C. F. Chang, H. Hricak, R. J. Brescia, W. Auffermann, and J. M. Quivey, “Radiation-induced uterine changes: MR imaging,” Radiology, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 55–58, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. C. Larsen, K. Schmiegelow, C. Rechnitzer, A. Loft, J. Müller, and A. N. Andersen, “Radiotherapy at a young age reduces uterine volume of childhood cancer survivors,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 96–102, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. O. D. Critchley, W. H. B. Wallace, S. M. Shalet, H. Mamtora, J. Higginson, and D. C. Anderson, “Abdominal irradiation in childhood: the potential for pregnancy,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 392–394, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. E. Bath, H. O. D. Critchley, S. E. Chambers, R. A. Anderson, C. J. H. Kelnar, and W. H. B. Wallace, “Ovarian and uterine characteristics after total body irradiation in childhood and adolescence: response to sex steroid replacement,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 1265–1272, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Holm, K. Nysom, V. Brocks, H. Hertz, N. Jacobsen, and J. Müller, “Ultrasound B-mode changes in the uterus and ovaries and Doppler changes in the uterus after total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in childhood,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 259–263, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Clark, J. J. Kurinczuk, A. J. Lee, and S. Bhattacharya, “Obstetric outcomes in cancer survivors,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 849–854, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L.-M. Madanat-Harjuoja, N. Malila, P. M. Lähteenmäki, J. D. Boice Jr., M. Gissler, and T. Dyba, “Preterm delivery among female survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adulthood cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 7, pp. 1669–1679, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Magelssen, K. K. Melve, R. Skjærven, and S. D. Fosså, “Parenthood probability and pregnancy outcome in patients with a cancer diagnosis during adolescence and young adulthood,” Human Reproduction, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 178–186, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. A. Mueller, E. J. Chow, A. Kamineni et al., “Pregnancy outcomes in female childhood and adolescent cancer survivors: a linked cancer-birth registry analysis,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 163, no. 10, pp. 879–886, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. F. Winther, J. D. Boice Jr., A. L. Svendsen, K. Frederiksen, M. Stovall, and J. H. Olsen, “Spontaneous abortion in a Danish population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 26, pp. 4340–4346, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. M. Green, E. M. Peabody, B. Nan, S. Peterson, J. A. Kalapurakal, and N. E. Breslow, “Pregnancy outcome after treatment for Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 2506–2513, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. C. Reulen, M. P. Zeegers, W. H. B. Wallace et al., “Pregnancy outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer in the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 2239–2247, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. B. Signorello, S. S. Cohen, C. Bosetti et al., “Female survivors of childhood cancer: preterm birth and low birth weight among their children,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 20, pp. 1453–1461, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. B. Signorello, J. J. Mulvihill, D. M. Green et al., “Stillbirth and neonatal death in relation to radiation exposure before conception: a retrospective cohort study,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9741, pp. 624–630, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Sudour, P. Chastagner, L. Claude et al., “Fertility and pregnancy outcome after abdominal irradiation that included or excluded the pelvis in childhood tumor survivors,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 867–873, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. E. Sanders, J. Hawley, W. Levy et al., “Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation,” Blood, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 3045–3052, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Salooja, R. M. Szydlo, G. Socie et al., “Pregnancy outcomes after peripheral blood or bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective survey,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9278, pp. 271–276, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Carter, L. L. Robison, L. Francisco et al., “Prevalence of conception and pregnancy outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation: report from the bone marrow transplant survivor study,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1023–1029, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Hürmüz, D. Sebag-Montefiore, P. Byrne, and R. Cooper, “Successful spontaneous pregnancy after pelvic chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer,” Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 452–458, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. de Menezes and S. M. Tuck, “Pelvic radiotherapy damage to the endometrium causing morbid adherence of placenta. A new risk factor?” Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 526–527, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. E. Bath, G. Tydeman, H. O. D. Critchley, R. A. Anderson, D. T. Baird, and W. H. B. Wallace, “Spontaneous conception in a young woman who had ovarian cortical tissue cryopreserved before chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis: case report,” Human Reproduction, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2569–2572, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. L. Odonnell, P. Warner, R. J. Lee et al., “Physiological sex steroid replacement in premature ovarian failure: randomized crossover trial of effect on uterine volume, endometrial thickness and blood flow, compared with a standard regimen,” Human Reproduction, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1130–1138, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Delanian and J.-L. Lefaix, “The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process: therapeutic perspective via the antioxidant pathway,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 119–131, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. L. Lefaix, S. Delanian, M. C. Vozenin, J. J. Leplat, Y. Tricaud, and M. Martin, “Striking regression of subcutaneous fibrosis induced by high doses of gamma rays using a combination of pentoxifylline and α-tocopherol: an experimental study,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 839–847, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Delanian, S. Balla-Mekias, and J. L. Lefaix, “Striking regression of chronic radiotherapy damage in a clinical trial of combined pentoxifylline and tocopherol,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 3283–3290, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Chaudière and R. Ferrari-Iliou, “Intracellular antioxidants: from chemical to biochemical mechanisms,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 37, no. 9-10, pp. 949–962, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  40. K. J. Claycombe and S. N. Meydani, “Vitamin E and genome stability,” Mutation Research, vol. 475, no. 1-2, pp. 37–44, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Letur-Könirsch, F. Guis, and S. Delanian, “Uterine restoration by radiation sequelae regression with combined pentoxifylline-tocopherol: a phase II study,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1219–1226, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Acharya, E. Yasmin, and A. H. Balen, “The use of a combination of pentoxifylline and tocopherol in women with a thin endometrium undergoing assisted conception therapies a report of 20 cases,” Human Fertility, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 198–203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Lédée-Bataille, F. Olivennes, J.-L. Lefaix, G. Chaouat, R. Frydman, and S. Delanian, “Combined treatment by pentoxifylline and tocopherol for recipient women with a thin endometrium enrolled in an oocyte donation programme,” Human Reproduction, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1249–1253, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Letur-Könirsch and S. Delanian, “Successful pregnancies after combined pentoxifylline-tocopherol treatment in women with premature ovarian failure who are resistant to hormone replacement therapy,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 439–441, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. M. Hawkins and R. A. Smith, “Pregnancy outcomes in childhood cancer survivors: probable effects of abdominal irradiation,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 399–402, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. O. Critchley and W. H. Wallace, “Impact of cancer treatment on uterine function,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, vol. 34, pp. 64–68, 2005. View at Google Scholar