Table 3: Summary of the pathway analysis for the differentially expressed genes between the groups. Pathways with FDR value less than 15% are shown.

Input to pathway analysisPathway nameFDR (%)

Genes presented a positive monotone trend on the 5th DOL, adjusted for multiple comparison (expression in extremely preterm is lower than that in very preterm; expression in very preterm is lower than that in moderately preterm)T-cell receptor signaling pathway
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Hematopoietic cell lineage
Intestinal immune network for IgA production
0.6
1.3
3.7
12.5

Genes presented a negative monotone trend on the 5th DOL, adjusted for multiple comparison No pathway

Genes presented a positive monotone trend on the 28th DOL, adjusted for multiple comparison Primary immunodeficiency
T-cell receptor signaling pathway
Hematopoietic cell lineage
Intestinal immune network for IgA production
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
0.01
0.02
1.3
4.9
10.5

Genes presented a negative monotone trend on the 28th DOL, adjusted for multiple comparison No pathway

Genes whose expressions were significantly higher on the 28th DOL compared to those on the 5th DOL (paired -test, ; fold change > 1.5)Graft-versus-host disease
Allograft rejection
Antigen processing and presentation
Intestinal immune network for IgA production
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Primary immunodeficiency
Hematopoietic cell lineage
Natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
B-cell receptor signaling pathway
T-cell receptor signaling pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
0.03
0.04
0.13
0.5
1.8
5.8
6.0

Genes whose expressions were significantly lower on the 28th DOL compared to those on the 5th DOL (paired -test, ; fold change > 1.5)Cell cycle
Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis
Lysosome
Endocytosis
Base excision repair
Leukocyte transendothelial migration
Glutathione metabolism
0.27
1.04
1.09
1.54
3.46
3.50
5.69
7.59
8.30

Genes whose expressions were significantly higher in the group of extremely preterm infants (measurements on the 28th DOL) compared to those in the group of very preterm infants (measurements on the 5th DOL); values adjusted for multiple testing, Graft-versus-host disease
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
Natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity
0.01
0.4
2.3

Genes whose expressions were significantly lower in the group of extremely preterm infants (measurements on the 28th DOL) compared to those in the group of very preterm infants (measurements on the 5th DOL); values adjusted for multiple testing, No pathway