Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 498420, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/498420
Review Article

Physicochemical Properties of Nanomaterials: Implication in Associated Toxic Manifestations

1Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202002, India
2Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202002, India
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202002, India
4Women’s College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202002, India

Received 14 May 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 6 August 2014

Academic Editor: Mohammad Owais

Copyright © 2014 Manzoor Ahmad Gatoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Lehn, “Toward self-organization and complex matter,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5564, pp. 2400–2403, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Raison, “Gold nanoparticle-based diagnostic test for rapid diagnosis of leading infectious diseases,” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 13, no. 3, article 230, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Kim and T. Hyeon, “Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as agent,” Nanotechnology, vol. 25, no. 1, Article ID 012001, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. E. Prigodich, P. S. Randeria, W. E. Briley et al., “Multiplexed nanoflares: MRNA detection in live cells,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 2062–2066, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Zhu, X. Zhou, and D. Xing, “Ultrasensitive aptamer-based bio bar code immunomagnetic separation and electrochemiluminescence method for the detection of protein,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 725, pp. 39–43, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. D. W. Hatchett and M. Josowicz, “Composites of intrinsically conducting polymers as sensing nanomaterials,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 108, pp. 746–769, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. Frank, C. Tyagi, L. Tomar et al., “Overview of the role of nanotechnological innovations in the detection and treatment of solid tumors,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp. 589–613, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  9. T. Yasui, N. Kaji, and Y. Baba, “Nanobiodevices for biomolecule analysis and imaging,” Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 6, pp. 83–96, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Seshan, Handbook of Thin-Film Deposition Processes and Techniques—Principles, Methods, Equipment and Applications, William Andrew Publishing, Noyes, Minn, USA, 2002.
  11. A. D. Maynard, R. J. Aitken, T. Butz et al., “Safe handling of nanotechnology,” Nature, vol. 444, pp. 267–269, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Mädler, and N. Li, “Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5761, pp. 622–627, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Meng, Z. Chen, G. M. Xing et al., “Ultrahigh reactivity provokes nanotoxicity: explanation of oral toxicity of nano-copper particles,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 102–110, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Singh, B. Manshian, G. J. S. Jenkins et al., “NanoGenotoxicology: the DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 23-24, pp. 3891–3914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. W. Powers, M. Palazuelos, B. M. Moudgil, and S. M. Roberts, “Characterization of the size, shape, and state of dispersion of nanoparticles for toxicological studies,” Nanotoxicology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 42–51, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. L. Aillon, Y. M. Xie, N. El-Gendy, C. J. Berkland, and M. L. Forrest, “Effects of nanomaterial physicochemical properties on in vivo toxicity,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 457–466, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Yin, H. P. Too, and G. M. Chow, “The effects of particle size and surface coating on the cytotoxicity of nickel ferrite,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 29, pp. 5818–5826, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Hu, J. Xie, Y. W. Tong, and C. Wang, “Effect of PEG conformation and particle size on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles with the HepG2 cells,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of nanopartides,” Small, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 26–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Lovrić, H. S. Bazzi, Y. Cuie, G. R. A. Fortin, F. M. Winnik, and D. Maysinger, “Differences in subcellular distribution and toxicity of green and red emitting CdTe quantum dots,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 377–385, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Aggarwal, J. B. Hall, C. B. McLeland, M. A. Dobrovolskaia, and S. E. McNeil, “Nanoparticle interaction with plasma proteins as it relates to particle biodistribution, biocompatibility and therapeutic efficacy,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 428–437, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. T. Holgate, “Exposure, uptake, distribution and toxicity of nanomaterials in humans,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Risom, P. Møller, and S. Loft, “Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution,” Mutation Research, vol. 592, no. 1-2, pp. 119–137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Donaldson and V. Stone, “Current hypotheses on the mechanisms of toxicity of ultrafine particles,” Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 405–410, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. H. De Jong, W. I. Hagens, P. Krystek, M. C. Burger, A. J. A. M. Sips, and R. E. Geertsma, “Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1912–1919, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. R. Gurr, A. S. S. Wang, C. H. Chen, and K. Y. Jan, “Ultrafine titanium dioxide particles in the absence of photoactivation can induce oxidative damage to human bronchial epithelial cells,” Toxicology, vol. 213, no. 1-2, pp. 66–73, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Asgharian and O. T. Price, “Deposition of ultrafine (NANO) particles in the human lung,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1045–1054, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. G. Kreyling, M. Semmler, F. Erbe et al., “Translocation of ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from lung epithelium to extrapulmonary organs is size dependent but very low,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 65, no. 20, pp. 1513–1530, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. J. Johnston, G. Hutchison, F. M. Christensen, S. Peters, S. Hankin, and V. Stone, “A review of the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of silver and gold particulates: particle attributes and biological mechanisms responsible for the observed toxicity,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 328–346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Seaton and K. Donaldson, “Nanoscience, nanotoxicology, and the need to think small,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9463, pp. 923–924, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Z. Chen, H. A. Meng, G. M. Xing et al., “Acute toxicological effects of copper nanoparticles in vivo,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 109–120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Lherm, R. H. Muller, F. Puisieux, and P. Couvreur, “Alkylcyanoacrylate drug carriers: II. Cytotoxicity of cyanoacrylate nanoparticles with different alkyl chain length,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. J. Petersen and B. C. Nelson, “Mechanisms and measurements of nanomaterial-induced oxidative damage to DNA,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 398, no. 2, pp. 613–650, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Ispas, D. Andreescu, A. Patel, D. V. Goia, S. Andreescu, and K. N. Wallace, “Toxicity and developmental defects of different sizes and shape nickel nanoparticles in zebrafish,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 16, pp. 6349–6356, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 662–668, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. F. Hamilton Jr., N. Wu, D. Porter, M. Buford, M. Wolfarth, and A. Holian, “Particle length-dependent titanium dioxide nanomaterials toxicity and bioactivity,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 6, article 35, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Verma and F. Stellacci, “Effect of surface properties on nanoparticle-cell interactions,” Small, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 12–21, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. A. Champion and S. Mitragotri, “Role of target geometry in phagocytosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 13, pp. 4930–4934, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Lee, S. Lim, and C. Kim, “Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity of paclitaxel-loaded sterically stabilized solid lipid nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2137–2146, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. T. Kim, A. Chompoosor, Y. Yeh, S. S. Agasti, D. J. Solfiell, and V. M. Rotello, “Dendronized gold nanoparticles for siRNA delivery,” Small, vol. 8, no. 21, pp. 3253–3256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. H. Park, M. Chhowalla, Z. Iqbal, and F. Sesti, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a new class of ion channel blockers,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 50, pp. 50212–50216, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Chen, Y. Hung, I. Liau, and G. S. Huang, “Assessment of the in vivo toxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 858–864, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. I. Hsiao and Y. Huang, “Effects of various physicochemical characteristics on the toxicities of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles toward human lung epithelial cells,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 7, pp. 1219–1228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Fubini, I. Fenoglio, M. Tomatis, and F. Turci, “Effect of chemical composition and state of the surface on the toxic response to high aspect ratio nanomaterials,” Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 899–920, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Lippmann, “Effects of fiber characteristics on lung deposition, retention, and disease,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 88, pp. 311–317, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. A. Shvedova, E. R. Kisin, R. Mercer et al., “Unusual inflammatory and fibrogenic pulmonary responses to single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice,” The American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 289, no. 5, pp. L698–L708, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. A. Poland, R. Duffin, I. Kinloch et al., “Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 423–428, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Hoshino, K. Fujioka, T. Oku et al., “Physicochemical properties and cellular toxicity of nanocrystal quantum dots depend on their surface modification,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 2163–2169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Pietroiusti, M. Massimiani, I. Fenoglio et al., “Low doses of pristine and oxidized single-wall carbon nanotubes affect mammalian embryonic development,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 4624–4633, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. V. Georgieva, D. Kalicharan, P. Couraud et al., “Surface characteristics of nanoparticles determine their intracellular fate in and processing by human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells in vitro,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 318–325, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. M. Goodman, C. D. McCusker, T. Yilmaz, and V. M. Rotello, “Toxicity of gold nanoparticles functionalized with cationic and anionic side chains,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 897–900, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. C. K. Heiden, E. Dengler, W. J. Kao, W. Heideman, and R. E. Peterson, “Developmental toxicity of low generation PAMAM dendrimers in zebrafish,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 225, no. 1, pp. 70–79, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Bhattacharjee, L. H. J. D. Haan, N. M. Evers et al., “Role of surface charge and oxidative stress in cytotoxicity of organic monolayer-coated silicon nanoparticles towards macrophage NR8383 cells,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 7, no. article 25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. K. Kohli and H. O. Alpar, “Potential use of nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccine delivery: effect of particle size and charge,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 275, no. 1-2, pp. 13–17, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. J. Griffitt, J. Luo, J. Gao, J. Bonzongo, and D. S. Barber, “Effects of particle composition and species on toxicity of metallic nanomaterials in aquatic organisms,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1972–1978, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Zhang, B. Gilbert, F. Huang, and J. F. Banfield, “Water-driven structure transformation in nanoparticles at room temperature,” Nature, vol. 424, no. 6952, pp. 1025–1029, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Yang, X. Wang, G. Jia et al., “Long-term accumulation and low toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes in intravenously exposed mice,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 181, no. 3, pp. 182–189, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. Wick, P. Manser, L. K. Limbach et al., “The degree and kind of agglomeration affect carbon nanotube cytotoxicity,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 121–131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Cytotoxicity suppression and cellular uptake enhancement of surface modified magnetic nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1565–1573, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. M. Sayes, J. D. Fortner, W. Guo et al., “The differential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fullerenes,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1881–1887, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. Fubini, E. Giamello, M. Volante, and V. Bolis, “Chemical functionalities at the silica surface determining its reactivity when inhaled. Formation and reactivity of surface radicals,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 571–598, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Kirchner, T. Liedl, S. Kudera et al., “Cytotoxicity of colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 331–338, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Kuo, C. Lee, S. Lin, C. Dong, C. Chen, and H. Tan, “Studies of intracorneal distribution and cytotoxicity of quantum dots: risk assessment of eye exposure,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 253–261, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Guo, W. Liu, J. Liang, Z. He, H. Xu, and X. Yang, “Probing the cytotoxicity of CdSe quantum dots with surface modification,” Materials Letters, vol. 61, no. 8-9, pp. 1641–1644, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. C. Mancini, B. A. Kairdolf, A. M. Smith, and S. Nie, “Oxidative quenching and degradation of polymer-encapsulated quantum dots: new insights into the long-term fate and toxicity of nanocrystals in vivo,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 33, pp. 10836–10837, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Chen and D. Gerion, “Fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal-peptide conjugates for long-term, nontoxic imaging and nuclear targeting in living cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1827–1832, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Mahmoudi, A. S. Milani, and P. Stroeve, “Synthesis, surface architecture and biological response of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for application in drug delivery: a review,” International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, pp. 164–201, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  68. J. Bang, B. Chon, N. Won, J. Nam, T. Joo, and S. Kim, “Spectral switching of type-II quantum dots by charging,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 16, pp. 6320–6323, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. Dorfs, T. Franzi, R. Osovsky et al., “Type-I and type-II nanoscale heterostructures based on CdTe nanocrystals: a comparative study,” Small, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1148–1152, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Lacerda, A. Soundararajan, R. Singh et al., “Dynamic imaging of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube systemic circulation and urinary excretion,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 225–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. C. Morris, E. Gros, G. Aldrian-Herrada et al., “A non-covalent peptide-based carrier for in vivo delivery of DNA mimics,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 35, no. 7, p. e49, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 325–327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol et al., “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nature Materials, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 543–557, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. S. Lin and C. L. Haynes, “Impacts of mesoporous silica nanoparticle size, pore ordering, and pore integrity on hemolytic activity,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 13, pp. 4834–4842, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. de Angelis, A. Pujia, C. Falcone et al., “Water soluble nanoporous nanoparticle for in vivo targeted drug delivery and controlled release in B cells tumor context,” Nanoscale, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 2230–2236, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. H. Park, L. Gu, G. von Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications,” Nature Materials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 331–336, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. M. Sager, D. W. Porter, V. A. Robinson, W. G. Lindsley, D. E. Schwegler-Berry, and V. Castranova, “Improved method to disperse nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo investigation of toxicity,” Nanotoxicology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 118–129, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Jiang, G. Oberdörster, and P. Biswas, “Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 77–89, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. V. L. Colvin, “The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1166–1170, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. Hou, P. Westerhoff, and J. D. Posner, “Biological accumulation of engineered nanomaterials: a review of current knowledge,” Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 103–122, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus