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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 502093, 8 pages
Review Article

Role of the Adjacent Stroma Cells in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression: Synergy between TGF-β and IGF Signaling

1Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Tarry Building, Room 16-733, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
2Department of Urology, University of California at Irvine, Medical Center, Orange, CA 92868, USA
3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Medical Surgery Building I, Room 168, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
4Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL 60201, USA
5Department of Statistics, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA
6Department of Family and Community Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA

Received 29 January 2014; Accepted 28 May 2014; Published 25 June 2014

Academic Editor: Leland Chung

Copyright © 2014 Chung Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This review postulates the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I/IGF-II) signaling in stromal cells during prostate carcinogenesis and progression. It is known that stromal cells have a reciprocal relationship to the adjacent epithelial cells in the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of the prostate. An interaction between TGF-β and IGF signaling occupies a central part in this stromal-epithelial interaction. An increase in TGF-β and IGF signaling will set off the imbalance of this relationship and will lead to cancer development. A continuous input from TGF-β and IGF in the tumor microenvironment will result in cancer progression. Understanding of these events can help prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of prostate cancer.