A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
Level of the mechanical point impedance, , of the dry skull for three densities of the polyurethane. From the optimized value (997.40 kg/m3) in the model (represented by red-solid line and designated by “normal”), one order of magnitude was decreased to represent low density (i.e., 99.740 kg/m3). For the representation of the higher density, 8,800 kg/m3 was used for the density of the polyurethane to make the sum of mass of the skull and polyurethane be 3.47 kg. Also included in the figure is the level of the mechanical point impedance of the dry skull in Stenfelt et al.  (black-solid line) as well as the level of the mechanical point impedance from intact cadaver heads .
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