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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 520464, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/520464
Research Article

Two-Dimensional PCA Highlights the Differentiated Antitumor and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Laurus nobilis L. from Different Origins

1Mountain Research Center (CIMO), ESA, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
2REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy of University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
3Center of Chemistry, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
4Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Received 18 February 2014; Revised 24 March 2014; Accepted 27 March 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editor: Anjali Joshi

Copyright © 2014 Maria Inês Dias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Natural matrices are important sources of new antitumor and antimicrobial compounds. Species such as Laurus nobilis L. (laurel) might be used for this purpose, considering its medicinal properties. Herein, in vitro activity against human tumor cell lines, bacteria, and fungi was evaluated in enriched phenolic extracts. Specifically, methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and cultivated samples of L. nobilis were compared considering different phenolic groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to understand how each extract acts differentially against specific bacteria, fungi, and selected human tumor cell lines. In general, the extract type induced the highest differences in bioactivity of laurel samples. However, from the PCA biplot, it became clear that wild laurel samples were higher inhibitors of tumor cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, NCI-H460, and HCT15). HepG2 had the same response to laurel from wild and cultivated origin. It was also observed that methanolic extracts tended to have higher antimicrobial activity, except against A. niger, A. fumigatus, and P. verrucosum. The differences in bioactivity might be related to the higher phenolic contents in methanolic extracts. These results allow selecting the extract type and/or origin with highest antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activity.