Table 1: Characteristics and univariate associations of falls with covariates.

TotalFallersCrude OR (95% CI)
(%)

90,6106,391
Age (years)
 65–6926,4251,185(4.5)1.00
 70–7426,5231,504(5.7)1.28 (1.18–1.38)**
 75–7920,1761,615(8.0)1.85 (1.72–2.00)**
 80–8411,7731,310(11.1)2.67 (2.46–2.89)**
 ≥855,713777(13.6)3.35 (3.05–3.69)**
Sex
 Male41,9122,893(6.9)1.00
 Female 48,6983,498(7.2)1.04 (0.99–1.10)
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥1315,282792(5.2)1.00
 10–1229,8451,679(5.6)1.09 (1.00–1.19)
 6–939,2593,247(8.3)1.65 (1.52–1.79)**
 <62,268341(15.0)3.24 (2.83–3.71)**
 Missing3,956332(8.4)1.68 (1.47–1.91)**
Equivalent income (yen)
 ≥25023,0741,280(5.5)1.00
 1,500,000–2,500,00029,6961,798(6.1)1.10 (1.02–1.18)*
 <1,500,00022,0451,865(8.5)1.57 (1.46–1.69)**
 Missing15,7951,448(9.2)1.72 (1.59–1.86)**
Present illness related to
 No40,7392,265(5.6)1.00
 Yes28,2443,193(11.3)2.17 (2.05–2.29)**
 Missing21,627933(4.3)0.77 (0.71–0.83)**
Physical ability
 Go upstairs without holding rail or wall
  Yes74,9703,933(5.2)1.00
  No14,6032,354(16.1)2.38 (2.26–2.51)**
  Missing1,037104(10.0)2.23 (1.79–2.77)**
 Stand up from the chair without any aids
  Yes54,6962,592(4.7)1.00
  No34,9913,707(10.6)3.47 (3.29–3.67)**
  Missing92392(10.0)2.01 (1.64–2.47)**
Depression
 No53,9122,516(4.7)1.00
 Mild15,5091,624(10.5)2.39 (2.24–2.55)**
 Moderate to severe5,144880(17.1)4.22 (3.88–4.58)**
 Missing16,0451,371(8.5)1.91 (1.78–2.04)**
Walking in min/day
 ≥3058,9933,481(5.9)1.00
 <3028,6272,623(9.2)1.61 (1.53–1.70)**
 Missing2,990287(9.6)1.69 (1.49–1.92)**
Frequency of outings
 Almost every day46,0632,546(5.5)1.00
 2-3 times a week25,4211,845(7.3)1.34 (1.26–1.42)**
 Once a week or less15,1811,633(10.8)2.06 (1.93–2.20)**
 Missing3,945367(9.3)1.75 (1.56–1.97)**
Neighborhood built environment
 Parks and walkways for exercise
  Yes61,6673,937(6.4)1.00
  No24,0711,908(7.9)1.26 (1.19–1.34)**
  Missing4,872546(11.2)1.85 (1.68–2.03)**
 Difficult to walk on a slope or steps
  Yes35,7873,106(8.7)1.00
  No50,3212,814(5.6)0.62 (0.59–0.66)**
  Missing4,502471(10.5)1.23 (1.11–1.36)**
Population density (person per square kilometer)
 Urban36,8782,025(5.5)1.00
 Semiurban20,3271,429(7.0)1.30 (1.21–1.40)**
 Rural33,4052,937(8.8)1.66 (1.56–1.76)**

OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.
Stroke, osteoporosis, joint disease/neuralgia, injury/fracture, mental illness, impaired vision, and impaired hearing.
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