Table 3: Multivariate adjusted OR and 95% CI for the associations of falls.

Model 1Model 2Model 3
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)

Frequency of participation in sport organizations
 Not participating1.001.001.00
 Once a month or less0.77 (0.69–0.87)**0.94 (0.84–1.05)0.91 (0.81–1.02)
 Once a week 0.66 (0.57–0.75)**0.82 (0.71–0.94)**0.82 (0.72–0.95)**
 2 or 3 times a week 0.63 (0.56–0.71)**0.81 (0.71–0.92)**0.81 (0.72–0.92)**
 Almost every day 0.49 (0.38–0.64)**0.66 (0.51–0.87)**0.67 (0.52–0.88)**
Age (years)
 65–691.001.001.00
 70–741.23 (1.13–1.33)**1.12 (1.03–1.21)*1.10 (1.01–1.19)*
 75–791.68 (1.55–1.82)**1.29 (1.19–1.40)**1.25 (1.16–1.36)**
 80–842.32 (2.13–2.52)**1.57 (1.43–1.71)**1.50 (1.38–1.64)**
 ≥852.74 (2.48–3.02)**1.65 (1.49–1.83)**1.57 (1.42–1.75)**
Sex
 Male1.001.001.00
 Female 0.95 (0.91–1.01)0.79 (0.75–0.84)**0.79 (0.75–0.84)**
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥131.001.001.00
 10–121.04 (0.95–1.13)0.99 (0.91–1.08)0.98 (0.90–1.07)
 6–91.37 (1.26–1.49)**1.24 (1.14–1.35)**1.22 (1.12–1.33)**
 <61.86 (1.61–2.14)**1.52 (1.31–1.75)**1.47 (1.27–1.71)**
Equivalent income (yen)
 ≥2501.001.001.00
 1,500,000–2,500,0001.07 (0.99–1.15)1.01 (0.94–1.09)1.00 (0.92–1.08)
 <1,500,0001.29 (1.20–1.40)**1.08 (1.00–1.17)*1.02 (0.94–1.10)
Present illness related to
 No1.001.00
 Yes1.59 (1.50–1.69)**1.57 (1.48–1.67)**
Physical ability
 Go upstairs without holding rail or wall
  Yes1.001.00
  No1.45 (1.36–1.53)**1.44 (1.36–1.53)**
 Stand up from the chair without any aids
  Yes1.001.00
  No2.02 (1.89–2.14)**1.98 (1.86–2.11)**
Depression
 No1.001.00
 Mild1.79 (1.68–1.92)**1.78 (1.66–1.90)**
 Moderate to severe2.72 (2.49–2.97)**2.68 (2.45–2.93)**
Walking in min/day
 ≥301.001.00
 <301.09 (1.03–1.15)**1.09 (1.03–1.16)**
Frequency of outings
 Almost every day1.001.00
 2-3 times a week0.99 (0.93–1.06)0.96 (0.90–1.03)
 Once a week or less1.11 (1.04–1.20)**1.03 (0.96–1.11)
Neighborhood built environment
 Parks and walkways for exercise
  Yes1.00
  No1.03 (0.97–1.09)
 Difficult to walk on a slope or steps
  Yes1.00
  No0.74 (0.70–0.79)**
Population density (people per square kilometer)
 Urban 1.00
 Semiurban1.23 (1.14–1.32)**
 Rural1.43 (1.35–1.53)**

OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; stroke, osteoporosis, joint disease/neuralgia, injury/fracture, mental illness, impaired vision, and impaired hearing.
Model 1 is adjusted for age, sex, educational attainment, and equivalent income.
Model 2 is adjusted for the covariates in Model 1 plus physical ability, depression, walking in minute/day, and frequency of outings.
Model 3 is adjusted for the covariates in Model 2 plus neighborhood built environment and population density.
, .