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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 543020, 10 pages
Research Article

Hypoglossal-Facial Nerve Reconstruction Using a Y-Tube-Conduit Reduces Aberrant Synkinetic Movements of the Orbicularis Oculi and Vibrissal Muscles in Rats

1Department of Anatomy, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, 07070 Antalya, Turkey
2Department of Ear Nose Throat, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, 07070 Antalya, Turkey
3Anatomical Institute I, University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany

Received 23 June 2014; Revised 16 September 2014; Accepted 17 September 2014; Published 9 December 2014

Academic Editor: Stefan Rampp

Copyright © 2014 Yasemin Kaya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis) which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex) and vibrissal (whisking) musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested () for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1), those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2), and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3). Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone.