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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 543765, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/543765
Review Article

Update in Pathogenesis and Prospective in Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

1Department of Perinatal Medicine, Sapienza University, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Department of Pediatrics and Infant’s Neuropsychiatry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy

Received 27 February 2014; Accepted 24 June 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Mikihiro Fujiya

Copyright © 2014 Gianluca Terrin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is among the most common and devastating diseases in neonates and, despite the significant advances in neonatal clinical and basic science investigations, its etiology is largely understood, specific treatment strategies are lacking, and morbidity and mortality remain high. Improvements in the understanding of pathogenesis of NEC may have therapeutic consequences. Pharmacologic inhibition of toll-like receptor signaling, the use of novel nutritional strategies, and microflora modulation may represent novel promising approaches to the prevention and treatment of NEC. This review, starting from the recent acquisitions in the pathogenic mechanisms of NEC, focuses on current and possible therapeutic perspectives.