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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 545473, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/545473
Research Article

Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India

1Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014, India
2Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014, India

Received 11 February 2014; Revised 7 May 2014; Accepted 8 May 2014; Published 3 June 2014

Academic Editor: Young-Mi Lee

Copyright © 2014 Deepmala Satpathy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L.) including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) were measured in the paddy field soil and plant parts. Mn and Cd are found to be accumulated more in shoot than in root. The metal transfer factors from soil to rice plant were significant for Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for heavy metals was Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb indicating that the accumulation of micronutrients was more than that of nonessential toxic heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in paddy field soils than that of the nearby control soil but below permissible limits. The higher Health Index (HI) values of rice consuming adults (1.561) and children (1.360) suggest their adverse health effects in the near future.