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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 563707, 8 pages
Research Article

Consensus on Control of Risky Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Taiwan with National Health Insurance

1Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
2Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
4Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
5Gastroenterology Endoscopy Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linko, Taiwan
6Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
7Department of Internal Medicine, Tainan Hospital, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
8School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510 Zhongzheng Road, Xinzhuang District, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan

Received 13 June 2014; Accepted 1 August 2014; Published 14 August 2014

Academic Editor: Seng-Kee Chuah

Copyright © 2014 Bor-Shyang Sheu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background and Aims. To compose upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) consensus from a nationwide scale to improve the control of UGIB, especially for the high-risk comorbidity group. Methods. The steering committee defined the consensus scope to cover preendoscopy, endoscopy, postendoscopy, and overview from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) assessments for UGIB. The expert group comprised thirty-two Taiwan experts of UGIB to conduct the consensus conference by a modified Delphi process through two separate iterations to modify the draft statements and to vote anonymously to reach consensus with an agreement ≥80% for each statement and to set the recommendation grade. Results. The consensus included 17 statements to highlight that patients with comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis, end-stage renal disease, probable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes, are at high risk of peptic ulcer bleeding and rebleeding. Special considerations are recommended for such risky patients, including raising hematocrit to 30% in uremia or acute myocardial infarction, aggressive acid secretory control in high Rockall scores, monitoring delayed rebleeding in uremia or cirrhosis, considering cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors plus PPI for pain control, and early resumption of antiplatelets plus PPI in coronary artery disease or stroke. Conclusions. The consensus comprises recommendations to improve care of UGIB, especially for high-risk comorbidities.