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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 580491, 9 pages
Research Article

On Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena in Biomolecules and Cells: From Levinthal to Hopfield

1Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
3Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Niš, 18000 Niš, Serbia
4Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
5Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
6Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia
7Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Republic of Srpska, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Received 27 February 2014; Accepted 13 May 2014; Published 16 June 2014

Academic Editor: K. Hun Mok

Copyright © 2014 Dejan Raković et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the context of the macroscopic quantum phenomena of the second kind, we hereby seek for a solution-in-principle of the long standing problem of the polymer folding, which was considered by Levinthal as (semi)classically intractable. To illuminate it, we applied quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence approaches to conformational transitions. Our analyses imply the existence of novel macroscopic quantum biomolecular phenomena, with biomolecular chain folding in an open environment considered as a subtle interplay between energy and conformation eigenstates of this biomolecule, governed by quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence laws. On the other hand, within an open biological cell, a system of all identical (noninteracting and dynamically noncoupled) biomolecular proteins might be considered as corresponding spatial quantum ensemble of these identical biomolecular processors, providing spatially distributed quantum solution to a single corresponding biomolecular chain folding, whose density of conformational states might be represented as Hopfield-like quantum-holographic associative neural network too (providing an equivalent global quantum-informational alternative to standard molecular-biology local biochemical approach in biomolecules and cells and higher hierarchical levels of organism, as well).